Level 245
Level 246

Cold War VII

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Grandfather Clauses
A law that excused a voter from literacy test if his grandfather had been eligible to vote on Jan. 1 1867.
legal separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Jim Crow Laws
Were racial laws enacted between 1876-1965 in US at state and local level.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
The 1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that states can have separate facilities for blacks and whites as long as they are equal.
Booker T. Washington
Called on Blacks to seek economic opportunities rather that political rights
W.E.B Du Bois
He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately. He helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights. He also helped found the NAACP.
Formerly a popular form of stage entertainment, a combination of comedy, song, dancing, etc.
A type of music that blended African-American songs and European musical forms.
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers.
McGuffey Readers
A series of elementary textbooks embedded with the virtues of hard work, punctuality, and sobriety. They gave students exposure to fine literature.
Progressive Era
The period between 1890 and 1920 where politicians debated what the government could do for the poor.
Theodore Roosevelt used this term to refer to journalists who alerted the public to the wrongdoings of politicians and businesses.
These are court orders that prohibit a certain activity.
Social Welfare Programs
These are programs that help provide a minimum standard of living.
Referring to a city government.
home rule
the policy followed by the Irish Parliamentary Party that offered a parliament in Ireland that could pass laws on areas that affected Ireland like agriculture and health while leaving other matters such as foreign affairs to Britain
Direct Primary
An election in which citizens vote to select nominees for upcoming elections.
A process in which citizens can put a proposed new law directly on the ballot in the next election by collecting the signatures of voters' on a petition.
A process that allowes citizens to approve or reject a law passed by the legislature.
This procedure allows voters to remove public officials from office before the next election.
Holding Company
A firm that buys up stocks and bonds of smaller companies, which would allow it to creat a monopoly.
People who favor the protection of natural resources.
New Nationalism
The political plan put together by Theodore Roosevelt which called for business regulation, welfare laws, workplace protection for women and children, income and inheritance taxes, and voting reform.
Bull Moose Party
This was the nickname of the progressive party whose candidate was Theodore Roosevelt.
Clayton Antitrust Act
3 exempted labor unions from laws against illegal combinations in restraint of trade
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
This group was set up by President Wilson and Congress to enforce the Clayton Act.
Federal Reserve System
established in 1913 as the nation's central bank; makes decisions regarding this nation's money
Civil Disobedience
A nonviolent refusal to obey a law in order to get it changed.
National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
Formed in 1890, this organization was created to win women the right to vote in elections.
Congressional Union (CU)
This group, founded by Alice Paul, sought to win women the right to vote through more militant, or extreme acts.
The risky buying and selling of stocks in the hope of making a quick profit.
A numerical limit put on people or things.
consumer economy
An economy that depends on a large amount of spending by consumers.
buying on margin
practice that allows people to buy stock with a down payment of a portion of the value
Red Scare
describe the panic of communism coming to US; many communist were arrested; there were 70000 members in
welfare capitalism
Offering workers higher wages and providing benefits.
Calvin Coolidge
He became President after the death of President Harding and was known for his speaking skill and for his silence. He said "The business of the American people is business."
Czar Nicholas II
Nicholas II ruled from 1 November 1894 until his enforced abdication on 2 March 1917. His reign saw Imperial Russia go from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to economic and military collapse.
Herbert Hoover
appointed head of the Food Administration by President Wilson
Alfred E. Smith
He was the candidate who lost the presidential race in 1928. he was the first Roman Catholic to make it that far.
Warren G Harding
He became President of the U.S. in 1920, and was famous for calling for a return to "normalcy", after the trauma of WWI. He was a Honest man but put friends into high offices…
John J. Raskob
Corporate leader who was trusted, and wrote an article entitled "Everybody ought to be rich".
Schenk vs. U.S. case
The standard of "clear and present danger" was established.
National Origins Act of 1924
It reduced the number of people that could enter the U.S.
US policy during WWI along with neutrality
Vladimir Lenin
Russian founder of the Bolsheviks and leader of the Russian Revolution and first head of the USSR (1870-1924)
Henry Ford
Assembly Line
A Russian political party (group) that started the Soviet Union.
Model T
A cheap and simple car designed by Henry Ford that allowed more Americans to own a car.
in 1939, the German army was only eclipsed by that of one nation, which?
J.P Morgan
He was a powerful banker who created the U.S. Steel Corporation in 1901, and controlled most of the steel business in the 20's and 30's.
Andrew Mellon
The American business man who was appointed Secretary of the Treasury by President Harding in 1921, and served under Coolidge and Hoover. He shaped many of the economic policies of the 1920's.
McNary-Haugen Farm Relief Bill
This was a bill designed to increase the price farmers received for their crops. It was passed twice by Congress but was vetoed each time by President Coolidge, and thus never became law.
Espionage Act
The 1917 law that set heavy fines and long prison terms for antiwar activities, such as spying, or simply speaking out against the war.
Gitlow Vs. New York
A court case in which Bernard Gitlow was found guilty for attempting to get people to violently overthrow the government.
Palmer Raids
A 1920 operation coordinated by Attorney General Mitchel Palmer in which federal marshals raided the homes of suspected radicals in 33 cities, and charged them with anarchy, many without evidence.
United Mine Workers of America [UMW]
In the 1920s, people in this union were involved in bitter strikes demanding higher wages, and better working conditions.
Forney-McCumber Tariff
Congress passed this bill in 1922 to raise foreign tariffs to there highest level ever in order to equalize the price of American and foreign goods. The tariff angered many of our international allies and trading partners.
Hawley-Smoot tariff
It was a 1930's import tax, the highest in history of the U.S. designed to keep out cheaper European goods.
Black Tuesday
day the stock market crashed, signaling the start of the Great Depression
group of shacks in which homeless lived during the Great Depression
Dow Jones Industrial Average
An average of all the stock prices of major industries.
Dust Bowl
a severe drought that struck the region. Heavy windstorms descended, transporting the dust in dense black clouds. These "black blizzards" were so dark that livestock were sometimes fooled into thinking that night had fallen.…
The amendment that repealed prohibition.
Dorothea Lange
United States photographer remembered for her portraits of rural workers during the Depression (1895-1965)
Eleanor Roosevelt
Outraged by the barring of Marian Anderson, this woman resigned from the DAR in protest
John Maynard-Keynes
British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
(1882 - 1945) Franklin Delano Roosevelt was the 32nd president of the United States, and the only president to serve more than two terms; from 1933 to 1945. Roosevelt engineered the New Deal, which…
1932 presidential election
Served as a turning point in the way Americans viewed the responsibility of the federal government.
Great Crash
The collapse of the American stock market in 1929, causing the Great Depression.
Great Depression
The economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s.
Penny Auction
Farm auctions during the Great Depression at which neighbors saved each others property from foreclosure by bidding low.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
Congress set up $2 billion., It made loans to major economic institutions such as banks, insurance companies and railroads.
Bonus Army
veterans who marched to Washington in 1932 to demand immediate payment of a World War I bonus
Grapes of Wrath
John Steinbeck's novel about a struggling farm family during the Great Depression. It gave a face to the violence and exploitation that migrant farm workers faced in America.
Farm Security Administration
It lent money to sharecroppers and tenant farmers to help them buy their own farms. It also established camps for migrant workers.
New Deal
A government program that created large amounts of jobs aimed at ending the Great Depression.
Will Rogers
United States humorist remembered for his homespun commentary on politics and American society. (1879-1935)
Babe Ruth
American Major League baseball player thought to be the greatest baseball player in history. His home run hitting prowess and charismatic personality made him a larger than life figure in the "Roaring Twenties".
20th Amendment
It changed the date presidents took office from March 4th to January 20th. Changed start of Congress to January 3rd. It put an end to the Lame Duck period.
Boulder Dam
Also called Hoover Dam. A dam on the Colorado River built during the Great Depression as part of a public-works program indented to stimulate buisness and provide jobs.
Hobo Symbols
Symbols written on sidewalks, fences, or buildings as a form of communication for the homeless. It let others know where to sleep, get a meal, or find work during the depression.
Empire State Building
The tallest building in the world at the time, this skyscraper designed by John J. Raskob was a symbol of hope during the Depression and a promise of an eventual return to prosperity, with…
An item of value that a borrower agrees to forfeit to the lender if the they cannot repay the loan.
Hundred Days
first hundred days of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency
Public Works Program
Government-funded projects to build public facilities, and provide jobs.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
Paid farmers to not produce so much food, that way the prices would rise
Second New Deal
A new set of programs and reforms launched by FDR in 1935.
Wagner Act
Law passed in 1935 that aided unions by legalizing collective bargaining and closed shops, and by establishing the National Labor Relations Board.
Closed shop
A working establishment where only people belonging to the union are hired. It was done by the unions to protect their workers from cheap labor.
Social Security System
System established by the 1935 Social Security Act to provide financial security, in the form of regular payments, to people who cannot support themselves.
American Liberty League
formed by conservative business leaders to oppose the new deal programs
A leader who manipulates people with half-truths, deceptive promises and scare tactics.
When a government changes something from private to state ownership or control.
deficit spending
1. spending more money than it collects in taxes (this results in government debt)
Slowdown in the economy
National Debt
The debt of the national government.
incoming money
A temporary alliance
Sit-down strike
Work stoppage in which workers shut down all machines and refuse to leave a factory until their demands are met.
Home Owners' Loan Corporation
As part of the Hundred Days that understood the nation's tragedy of foreclosed mortgages, the HOLC refinanced American home mortgages. This effort allowed one-fifth of all U.S. mortgages to become refinanced which would prevent another Great Depression
Level 247