Level 246
Level 247

Cold War VIII


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Federal Reserve Board
the 7-member board governing the Federal Reserve System.
Brain Trust
Group of expert policy advisers who worked with FDR in the 1930s to end the great depression.
Progressives
Government should be involves in the economy
Huey Long
took money from the rick and shared it with the poor, created "Share the Wealth" program but he assassinated at the height of fame
Father Charles E. Coughlin
Roman Catholic 'radio priest' who founded the National Union for Social Justice in 1934, he promoted schemes for the coinage of silver and made a Hacks on bankers that carried growing overtones of anti-Semitism
National Industrial Recovery Act
set hours, wages, and prices for workers
Black Cabinet
group of black leaders who unofficially advised President Franklin D. Roosevelt concerning the situation of African Americans
WPA
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
Tojo Hideki
The general who became prime minister of Japan and assumed dictatorial control of Japan during World War II. He initiated the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
Adolf Hitler
Dictator of Germany
Blackshirts
The color shirts Mussolini had the people of his party wear which signified their joining to the party. It was the beginning of people using theatrics in politics (later perfected by Hitler)
Winston Churchhill
BRITAIN'S PRIME MINISTER considered one of Britain's greatest leaders.
Benito Mussolini
Dictator of Italy
Neville Chamberlain
PM of Great Britain before World War II.
collaboration
When a person or government cooperats traitorously with an enemy that is occupying their country. Vichy France adopted a policy of cooperation (or collaboration) with Germany.
Resistance
A secret group organized to overthrow a government or occupation force. The Free French backed the underground resistance movement that was trying to remove the Germans from France.
Dunkirk
Location at which the French had to be evacuated by the British. Over 330,000 soldiers were rescued in the "miracle of the little ships."
fascism
A form of government in which individual freedoms are denied and complete power is given to the government.
Lend-Lease Act
Allowed America to sell, lend, or lease arms or other war supplies to any nation considered "vital to the defense of the U.S."
Mein Kampf
Hitlers book that he wrote in prison in which he lays out his plan to take control of Germany, no one took it seriously when in retrospect they really should have.
Nuremberg trials
(1945) A series of court proceedings held in Germany after World War II in which Nazi leaders were tried for aggression, violations of the rules of war, and crimes against humanity. Many were convicted and received the death penalty.
orator
PUBLIC SPEAKER
Axis Powers
Japan, Italy, and Germany in World War II.
Lenin
Joined the Russian Social Democratic Party, became a revolutionary when his brother was executed. Founded the Iskra (spark), Wrote What is to be Done in 1903, ends up taking power in Russia after the revolution
Reichstag
legislative body of Germany
Paul von Hindenburg
was a Prussian-German field marshal, statesman, and politician, and served as the second President of Germany from 1925 to 1934. Considered a war hero and put into power just before Hitler, his weak policies…
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty ending World War I
Autobahn
German work for motorway
Sudetenland
Area of Czechoslovakia, given to Hitler, containing people who spoke German.
Eduardo Daladier
He was the French prime minister who was one of the signers of the Munich pact. He tried to escape to Northern Africa when Hitler invaded France, but was captured and held prisoner until…
Munich Conference
Meeting held in 1938 where Hitler stated that the Sudetenland would be his "last territorial demand."
nationalists
those in Ireland who wanted to gain more independence for Ireland from Britain
republicans
those in Ireland who wished to gain full independence for Ireland, didn't want a king to rule over them, and were prepared to use force if necessary
Purge
involved a large-scale purge of the Communist Party and government officials, repression of peasants and the Red Army leadership, and widespread police surveillance, suspicion of "saboteurs", imprisonment, and arbitrary executions
Nazism
principles or methods of Nazis
Nuremberg
City in Bavaria famous for the Nazi Rallies
Allies
ally=friend Allies= US, UK, France, and Soviet Union
Nonaggression Pact
1939-Secret agreement between German leader Hitler and Soviet Leader Stalin not to attack one another and to divide Poland
Holocaust
the mass slaughter of European Jews in Nazi camps during WWII
Sitzkrieg
Also called the "Phony War" where Germany prepared for war but there were no real battles with the allies.
Maginot Line
French line of fortifications on the eastern French border.
Luftwaffe
German Air Force
Free France
Created by Charles de Gualle as the anti nazi french government, located in London.
Charles De Gaulle
Who was the head of the French government in exile?
Vichy France
A Nazi-controlled puppet state in Souther France established by Hitler and headed by Marshal Philippe Petain.
General Henri-Philippe Petain
The head of the French government (Vichy France) that collaborated with Germany.
Royal Air Force
RAF, British air force.
Manchurian Incident
Situation in 1931 when Japanese troops, claiming that Chinese soldiers had tried to blow up a railway line, captured several southern Manchurian cities, and continued to take over the country even after Chinese troops had withdrawn.
Puppet State
A supposedly independent country under the control of a powerful neighbor.
Burma Road
Route by which the US was sending munitions to the Chinese who were resisting the Japanese.
Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere
Japan offered to liberate Southeast-Asian countries from western colonial rule but instead used them as conquered land for natural resources.
Chinese Nationalist Army
The Chinese army led by General Jiang Jiesha to resists Japanese invasion.
Neutrality Acts
declared that the US would not get involved in foreign affairs; isolationist
Cash and Carry
The policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
America First Committee
group formed in 1940 by isolationists to block further aid to Britain -Leah
Liberty Ships
These were vessels built in the United States that usually carried troops or war supplies.
Carpet bombing
a technique developed by the RAF in which planes scattered large numbers of bombs over a wide area Cates (pg. 605)
war bonds
a way people at home could help with the war; people bought these which gave the government money to pay for the war; the government promised to repay people after the war
victory gardens
people planted gardens at home so that the men at war could receive the produce produced on the farms
Kamikaze
Japanese suicide pilots who loaded their planes with explosives and crashed them into American ships.
Island hopping
WWII strategy of conquering only certain Pacific islands that were important to the Allied advance toward Japan
GI
An abbreviation meaning "Government Issue", which referred to U.S. servicemen.
Nisei
second generation Japanese who were sent to internment (relocation) camps after the bombing of Pearl Harbor
Barrios
Spanish speaking neighborhoods.
Wildcat strikes
Work stoppages organized by workers and not endorsed by unions.
Rosie the Riveter
Advertising campaign character during WWII to encourage women to take factory jobs
Office of War Mobilization
Federal agency formed to coordinate issues related to war production during WWII
Atlantic Charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British PM Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WW II and to work for peace after the war
Battle of the Bulge
December, 1944-January, 1945 - After recapturing France, the Allied advance stalled along the German border. In the winter of 1944, Germany staged a massive counterattack in Belgium and Luxembourg which pushed a 30 mile "bu…
Lockouts
A tactic used by companies to fight unions, by not allowing employees on the property to work.
Office of War Information
..., established by the government to promote patriotism and help keep Americans united behind the war effort.
rations
When there is not enough food or supplies for everyone so each person just gets a little bit.
Code talkers
Navajo troops who used their language to send messages in a code the Japanese were never able to break
Selective Training and Service Act
passed in 1917, authorizing a draft of young men for military services.~Sydney
Anti-semitism
Prejudice against Jews
concentration camp
A prison where people work very hard and are given very little food. They work so hard that they usually die in a short time.
Kristallnacht
Night of the Broken Glass --German mobs and the state police throughout destroyed Jewish property, burned synagogues, and terrorized Jews on November 9, 1938.
Warsaw Ghetto
place with a wall with barbed wire and guarded by Germans. Jews received little food, overcrowded, and a lack of sanitation, which lead to diseases.(p. 611)- Shaylan
Wannsee Conference
A January 1942 conference during which Nazi officials decided to implement the "final solution" to the "Jewish question"—a euphemism for the extermination of European Jews and other minorities at concentration camps in eastern Europe.
genocide
attempting to eliminate an entire group of people
Death camp
in WWII, a German camp created solely for the purpose of mass murder. Jay
War Refugee Board
Created by Roosevelt, to help people threatened by Nazis. Despite it's late start, these programs helped save some 200,000 lives. With Funding from this program helped a Swedish diplomat rescue thousands of Hungarian Jew…
Bataan Death March
Sick and malnourished American soldiers were forced to march 55 miles, put on a train that took them inland and forced to march 8 more miles to prison camps. Their Japanese captors showed no m…
Geneva Convention
Stated the acceptance of international standards the Geneva Convention said" Prisoners of wat at time should be humanely treated and protected against acts of violence. -Rico.
Battle Of The Coral Sea
A battle from May 4-8, 1942, in which U.S. naval forces successfully protected the Allied base at Port Moresby, New Guinea, the last Allied outpost standing between the Japanese onslaught and Australia. The battle, w…
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in the Pacific theater of World War II.
Battle Of Guadalcanal
A campaign from August 1942 to February 1943 in which U.S. Marines fought brutal battles to expel Japanese forces from the Solomon Islands, a strategically important island chain in the South Pacific near Australia.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
What was the last ditch desperate Japanese attack that failed?
Battle Of Iwo Jima
A battle in February and March 1945 in which U.S. forces took Iwo Jima, a small but strategically important island off the Japanese coast. During the battle, an Associated Press photographer took a world-famous photog…
Battle Of Okinawa
The last large-scale battle in the Pacific theater, in which U.S. forces invaded the Japanese home island of Okinawa. The battle was very bloody, killing at least 100,000 Japanese soldiers and 80,000 to 100,000 Japanese civilians.
Manhattan Project
The secret US project during World War II that made the first atomic bomb.
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) an organization by James Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality
Bracero
Mexican farm laborers that came to work in the United States between 1942 and 1947.
Interned
To be imprisioned or confined.
Henry Kaiser
An American industrialist who won a government contract to build "Liberty Ships", which were cargo ships used in WWII.
Ford Motor Company
Company established by Henry Ford to sell automobiles, but started making war materials during WWII.
Treblinka
A Nazi death camp in Poland where 850,000 Jews were murdered in gas chambers in one year. In 1943 the camp was blown up by an uprising of the remaining 600 prisoners, all but 40 died.
General MacArthur
He was the commander of the US forces in the Philippine Islands who directed the Allied occupation of Japan.
Japanese American Internee
This was the forced relocation and detention by the United States government, in 1942, of approximately 110,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese residing along the Pacific coast of the United States.
V-E day
Victory in Europe Day celebrated the official defeat of the Nazis and end of WWII in Europe on May 8th, 1945.
V-J Day
Victory over Japan Day was the celebration of the Surrender of Japan, which was initially announced on August 15, 1945
Hiroshima
A city in Japan that the US dropped an atomic bomb on at the end of World War II.
Nagasaki
August 9, 1945 the United States dropped a second bomb on this city.
rationing
Restricting the amount of food and goods people may buy.
Level 248