Level 251
Level 252

Latin America & the Cold War


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Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Written by President Monroe's Secretary of State John Adams. Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power w…
Roosevelt corollary
Added to my he Monroe doctrine International police force to protect its economic and military in Latin America
Banana republic
A small country that is dependent upon one export, economy is dominated by foreign companies, government is unstable
40%
What was the percent of U.S. foreign investment in Latin America
Nicaragua
U.S Kept military force in where from 1912-1933
Sandino
He led a resistance government against U.S. military in Nicaragua
Somoza
A military general that captured and executed Sandino
Sandinistas
Was a group of people who supported communism in Nicaragua
Communist guerrillas
These were aided by the ussr and Cuba who rose in the 1960s to oppose the Somoza government
What does FSLV
Sandinista front for national liberations
Ortega
New communist President of Nicaragua
Contras
Us anti communist guerrilla in El Salvador and Nicaragua
Reagan
Who said the moral equivalent of our founding fathers
1950's
When does the cold war move to Latin America
United States
Who tries to find solutions to help Latin America with its problems
people became hostile and revolted
What happened as the US tried to help Latin America
Fidel Castro, 1959
Who comes to power in Cuba and when
Soviet Union, forces thousands into exile
Fidel Castro is aided by who and what does he do
1961
What year was the Bay of Pigs Invasion
CIA, Southern Coast of Cuba
Who led the Bay of Pigs Invasion and where was the invasion
Failure that led to strengthening Castro's popularity in Cuba
What was the outcome of the Bay of Pigs Invasion
1961, Cuban Missile Crisis
When do the Americans find out that the Soviet Union was building nuclear missile bases in Cuba
Kruchev
JFK demands _______ remove the missiles.
What does JFK impose on Cuba
Naval; Blockade, no Soviet ships allowed
American forces on alert- very tense
Soviet ships head toward Cuba full of missiles that create what
In the last minute, Soviet Ships turn back- Kruschev withdraws missiles
What happens with the Soviet Ships that are loaded up with the missiles
US agrees not to invade Cuba
After the Soviets leave with their missiles what does the US decide not to do
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
We should consider any attempt [by European powers] to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety.
Roosevelt Corollary (1904)
The adherence to the Monroe Doctrine may force the United States, in flagrant cases of wrongdoing or impotence, to the exercise of an international police power.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
32nd US President - He implemented the New Deal programs to help the nation out of the Great Depression, and he was the nation's leader during most of WWII
Good Neighbor Policy
Montevideo Convention (1933); Ended US occupation of Nicaragua (1912-33) and Haiti (1915-34); Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (1934); Treaty of Relations with Cuba (1934); Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation with Panama (1936)
Montevideo Convention (1933)
No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another.
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act (1934)
Signed under FDR's Good Neighbour Policy, led to lower tariffs on Latin American nations.
Treaty of Relations with Cuba (1934)
Signed under FDR's Good Neighbour Policy, removed US right to intervene there.
Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation with Panama (1936)
Signed under FDR's Good Neighbour Policy, raised rent US paid for Panama Canal Zone and removed US right to seize more land.
Anastasio Somoza
the dictator of Nicaragua and a US ally. His government was overthrown by leftist revolutionaries (Sandinistas) in 1979.
President Truman
President Truman believed that capitalism, freedom and the American way of life were in danger of being overrun by Communism.The Truman Doctrine had been one of 'containment' - stopping the Communists gaining any more territ…
Containment
Containment foreign policy towards communism is containment
Rio Treaty (1947)
Mutual defense pact between US and most nations of Latin America.
Organization of American States (1948)
Aimed at promoting regional cooperation. Formed in 1948 to promote democracy, economic cooperation, & human rights; Members pledged not to interfere with one another; The US often dominated this organization.
Four Point Program (1949)
Technical and economic assistance to developing world., a technical assistance program for "developing countries" announced by United States President Harry S. Truman in his inaugural address on January 20, 1949. It took its name …
President Eisenhower
US President who sent military advisors to Vietnam and decided that the "Domino Theory" would be America's philosophy and reason for entering the Vietnam War
New Look Policy
under Eisenhower, wanted to balance domestic economics against military needs and costs. He wanted to reduce military expenses but keep strong impact resistance the communists. Many countries during this time economic stability.
Guatemalan Coup
A CIA-orchestrated overthrow of the democratic socialist Guatemalan President. Largely influenced by Containment policies. Resulted in a forty year civil war and 400,000 deaths. Influenced US covert policy decisions in Latin America.
President Jacobo Arbenz
Democratically-elected socialist president of Guatemala overthrown in the Guatemalan Coup
Operation Pan-America
program of low interest US loans, conceived as a Marshall Plan for Latin America.Growing anti-Americanism resulted in Eisenhower's support.
Inter-American Development Bank
A regional development bank designed to promote sustainable economic development in the Western Hemisphere.
Fulgencio Batista
American-backed dictator of Cuba who was overthrown by Fidel Castro in 1959
Cuban Revolution
7 year guerilla war that eventually overthrew dictatorship of Batista in 1959
Fidel Castro
..., Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and…
US Response to Cuban Revolution
In 1960, implemented embargo on Cuba and CIA began making plans to remove him from power.
President Kennedy
US President who sent more military advisors to Vietnam and also sent Green Berets
bay of pigs
..., In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the inva…
Cuban Missile Crisis
the US discovers nuclear missiles are on their way to cuba so they take action and the ships from russia turn around
Limited Test Ban Treaty (1964)
Agreement between the US, Soviet Union, and Great Britain to end the testing of nuclear bombs in the atmosphere or underwater
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968)
treaty that made signers agree not to develop nuclear weapons or to stop the proliferation or spread of nuclear weapons
Alliance for Progress
program under Kennedy and Johnson that increased US economic aid to Latin American nations that agreed to economic and social reforms. ($20 billion over 10 years).
Operation Condor
campaign of political repression involving coordinate intelligence operations and assassinations implemented in 1975 by dictatorships of the southern cone. Aimed to eradicate communist and soviet influence and ideas to control active or political opposition movements against participating government.
Panama Canal Treaties (1977)
Passed by President Carter, these called for the gradual return of the Panama Canal to the people and government of Panama. They provided for the transfer of canal ownership to Panama in 1999 and guaranteed its neutrality.
Anastasio Somoza Debayle
Latin American military dictator of Nicaragua. Restricted production and mobilization of workers. In response to the oppression the US withdrew aid in 1978.
Augustus Sandino
Led resistance movement against US military in Nicaragua
Daniel Ortega
Becomes the president after Somoza Govt overthrown
Iran Contra Invasion
When US sold weapons to Iran and which Iran used the influence to get US hostages released from Lebenese terrorist
Batista
Ruled Cuba 1933-1959
Che Guevara
Argentinian who left his studies and became Jacob Arbenz's supporter
Jacob Arbenz
Democratically elected socialist who wanted to buy out all the land owned by U.S. Corporation
United Fruit Company
US corporation who owned lands in Cuba
Third World
Countries that experienced imperialism and has a unstable government. Countries not aligned with neither superpowers
Nonaligned nations
Independent countries of the third firce
Getulio Vargas
Brazilian dictator
Juscelino Kubitschek
First elected president of Brazil
Brasilia
New capital in Brazil's interior
Land reform
Breaking up large estates and distributing the land to peasants
Standard of living
Quality of life
Recession
Slowdown in the economy
Jose Sarney
New civilian president who was elected indirectly and fails
Lazaro Cardenas
Mexican president who tried to improve life for peasant and workers
Institutional Revolutionary Party
Changed name of the main political party or the PRI
Carlos Salinas de Gortari
Wins the PRI elections
North American Free Trade Agreement
Removed trade barriers between Mexico and the US, signed by Salinas. NAFT
Chiapas
State where peasant rebelled
Ernesto Zedillo
New PRI canidate
Vicente Fox Quesada
New President of Mexico
Juan Peron
Wins presidency in Argentina but later turns so dictatorship
Evita
Peron's wife who got a lot of support
Raul Alfonsin
President of Argentina elected in true free election
Level 253