Level 252
Level 253

Onset of the Cold War - Latin America & Africa


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Dirty War
(1976-1982) Argentinean years of harsh authoritarian rule and rightist death squads followed, which resulted not only in the near elimination of the Communists guerrillas but also kidnapping, torturing…
Neoliberalism
Latin American plan to shrink state expenditures (debt) as much as possible and thereby minimize government's interference in the free play of market forces. Laissez Faire Government. Slashing public funding for education, health care, pu…
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
(1948) (1934 - present) leftist political party in Mexico that helped to introduce democracy and maintain political stability for much of the 20th century. Democratic Insurgencies and Economic Crisis. Gets corrupt in 1960 from mas…
Tlatelolco Massacre
1968, The largest single massacre of civilians by government troops in North America since WWII. Entailed the most destructive use of force against Mexican people by their government on student protestors at National University…
Juan Perón
President of Argentina (1945-1955, 1973-1974). As a military officer, he championed the rights of labor. Aided by his wife Eva Duarte, he was elected president in 1946. He built up Argentinean industry, became very pop…
Falklands War
In 1982, when Argentina attempted to take control of the Falkland Islands (one of Britain's few remaining colonial outposts) 300 miles off its coast, the British successfully rebuked the Argentines, Had a great economic c…
Salvador Allende
1970-1973 Elected President of Chile. a member of the Socialist Party, he attempted to institute a number of democratic reforms in Chilean politics. He was overthrown and assassinated in 1973 during a military coup …
Augusto Pinochet
1973-1990, He was the Chilean dictator who was responsible for instituting the reforms set out by the Chicago Boys. His leadership was backed by the US and was carried out through a coup again…
Somoza Family
an influential political dynasty who ruled Nicaragua as a hereditary dictatorship, their influence exceeding their combined 43 years in the de facto presidency. They ultimately fell a revolution led by the Sandinista National Liberation Fr…
Sandinista Revolution
This was a revolution in which a group of Creoles led by a native of Bluefields raided a Somoza-owned business to gain access to food, guns and money before heading off to join Sandinista fighters.Upri…
Contras
Us anti communist guerrilla in El Salvador and Nicaragua
Fulgencio Batista
American-backed dictator of Cuba who was overthrown by Fidel Castro in 1959
Fidel Castro
..., Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and…
Che Guevara
Argentinian who left his studies and became Jacob Arbenz's supporter
Cuban Revolution
7 year guerilla war that eventually overthrew dictatorship of Batista in 1959
Kwame Nkrumah
Leader of nonviolent protests for freedom on the Gold Coast. When independence was gained, he became the first prime minister of Ghana. He developed economic projects, but was criticized for spending too much tim…
Convention People's Party (CPP)
Ruled over Ghana when it became the first post-colonial independent country in black Africa. It was organized by Kwame Nkrumah, the first president of Ghana. Organized nonviolent protests in support of independence and helpe…
Igbos
West African Christian culture in the North that created the Baifran state to fight for independence against Nigerian government. Greatly celebrates birth of a son.
Yoruba
these people spoke a common language and originally belonged to a number of small city-states in the forests on the southern edge of the savanna in what is today Benin and southwestern Nigeria. favore…
Hausa-Fulani
one of Nigeria's three major ethnic groups, are predominantly Muslim and live mostly in the north
Republic of Biafra
(30 May 1967 to 15 January 1970) A Nigerian ethnic group that declared independence in 1960s in oil district. Led to unrest in the rest of the country. A separatist movement led to three …
Biafran War
(1967-1970) The Nigerian Civil War, Nigeria vs Biafran state. Biafran state was established by Igbos, the Christians in Southern Nigeria, against the Muslim North. A tragic and bloody civil war pitted elements of independent Afri…
Jomo Kenyatta
Kenyan Nationalist who used strong leadership to help gain Kenya's independence, and became the first president; presented Kikuyu grievances to the British government in London. Leader of Kenyan African Union
Kenyan African Union (KAU)
Kenya's dominant party from the early 1960s to 2002. It played an important role in uniting people behind the idea of independence for Kenya and was for many years the only legal party in…
Mau Mau Uprising
(1952 to 1960) an insurgency by Kenyan rebels against the British colonialist rule. The core of the resistance was formed by members of the Kikuyu ethnic group, along with smaller numbers of Embu and M…
Apartheid
a system of legal racial segregation enforced by the National Party government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994, under which the rights of the majority black inhabitants of South Africa were curtailed and mino…
African National Congress (ANC)
A democratic organization dedicated to obtaining equal voting and civil rights for black inhabitants of South Africa. Founded in 1912 as the South African Native National Congress, it changed its name in 1923. Eventually brought equality (809)
Sharpeville Massacre
(March 21, 1960) township, by Johannesburg. Pan Africanist Congress led campaign of blacks to surrender themselves for arrest and led to small clashes and then the police firing, killing and wounding up to 70 African non-violent protestors.
Nelson Mandela
South Africa, Leader of the African National Congress who was jailed for his opposition to apartheid. He was later elected president in 1994 when free elections were established, and was instrumental in a new democr…
Soweto
Impoverished black neighborhood outside Johannesburg, South Africa, and the site of a violent uprising in 1976 in which hundreds were killed; that rebellion began a series of violent protest and responses from the government …
Steven Biko
South African Founder of the Black Consciousness Movement, he inspired blacks in South Africa to express their pride as a people and to confront the apartheid system as a group. His death in police cus…
Desmond Tutu
The leading spokesman of passive resistance to apartheid in the 1980's. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983 for his attempts to replace apartheid with a racially equal South African society.
F.W. de Klerk
Elected as the last white South African president in 1989. He legalized the African National Congress and also released Nelson Mandela from prison. This started a new era in South Africa and worked with the ANC to end apartheid
Yalta Conference
February 1945, war against Germany and Japan was still ongoing, but war was considered pretty much over
Potsdam Conference
August 1945, Truman yet to drop the bomb, Allies met again in Potsdam
Iron Curtain
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.
Containment
Containment foreign policy towards communism is containment
Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine 1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Communist Information Bureau
An international organization of communist parties, founded and controlled by the Soviet Union in 1947 and dissolved in 1956. The Cominform published propaganda touting international communist solidarity but was primarily a tool of Soviet foreign policy.
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
linked eastern European aid and recovery from Russia to the centralized command economies of communism. COMECON. Controlled by the Soviets to integrate economies of Eastern European nations and Russia. (All Soviet Union Nations have same economy)
Berlin Blockade
April 1, 1948 - Russia under Stalin blockaded Berlin completely in the hopes that the West would give the entire city to the Soviets to administer. To bring in food and supplies, the U.S.…
berlin airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nat…
Warsaw Pact
Created in 1955-Nations in Eastern Europe who were dominated by the USSR.
Hydrogen Bomb
One hundred more times more powerful than the atomic bomb. Truman ordered the development of it to outpace the Soviets.
Nikita Khrushchev
For the first few years after Stalin's death in 1953, a group of leaders shared power. As time went by, however, one man did gain power. Like Stalin, he believed that communism would take …
Secret Speech
was a report by soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev, which criticized Joseph Stalin, particularly for the purges of the military and the upper Party and the development of Stalin's personality cult. His main ideal wa…
Hungarian Rebellion
A rebellion against the government and its soviet policies. It started with a student demonstration and then other people started joining as they marched through Budapest. They wanted political change. so they withdrew from…
Intercontinental Ballistic Missile
ICBM, an extremely long-range land based missile capable of delivering a nuclear warhead from the homeland of one superpower to the homeland of the other. United States and USSR competed for nuclear dominance with those.
Sputnik
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
U-2 Spy Plane Incident
marking the deterioration of US relations with Soviet Union, this incident occurred when a US U-2 spy plane was shot down over Soviet Union airspace. Although denying the plane's purpose at first, it was fo…
berlin wall
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Détente
A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget.
Leonid Brezhnev
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia to restore Communism
Prague Spring
In 1968, Czechoslovakia, under Alexander Dubcek, began a program of reform. Dubcek promised civil liberties, democratic political reforms, and a more independent socialism. However, The Soviet Union invaded the country and put down the short-lived period of freedom.
Brezhnev Doctrine
Policy proclaimed in 1968 and declaring that the Soviet Union had the right to intervene in any Socialist country whenever it determined there was a need to maintain socialism (and the Soviet UNION). We will maintain communism.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
(SALT) - a series of meetings in the 1970s, in which leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to limit their nations' stocks of nuclear weapons. Established during Detente.
Helsinki Agreements
the final act of the Conference on Security and Co-Operation in Europe. 35 states (US, Canada, and all European states except Albania and Andorra) signed the declaration in an attempt to improve Western relations with the communist bloc.
Solidarity
Polish trade union created in 1980 to protest working conditions and political repression, first non communism trading union. It began the nationalist opposition to communist rule that led in 1989 to the fall of communism in eastern Europe.
Strategic Defense Initiative
Popularly known as "Star Wars," President Reagan's SDI proposed the construction of an elaborate computer-controlled, anti-missile defense system capable of destroying enemy missiles in outer spaced. Critics claimed that SDI could never be perfected.
Mikhail Gorbachev
Head of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of Communist governments in eastern Europe. Dome…
Glasnost
Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association and the press in the Soviet Union. Personal freedom- unbans media.
Perestroika
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a free market based economy and society. Liberalize Communism in Russia. Fixed agricultural deficit. 1985-86.
Revolutions of 1989
Collapse of communism, revolutions which overthrew Soviet-style communist states in the Eastern-Bloc. People start to rebel against Gorbachev and his liberal reforms. Bloodless revolution
Collapse of the Soviet Union
gradual process that was characterized by many republics of the Soviet Union declaring their independence and being recognized as sovereign nation states
European Union
an organization whose goal is to unite Europe so that goods, services, and workers can move freely among member countries
Demokratizatsiia
the policy of democratization identified by former Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev in 1987 as an essential component of perestroika. Part of a gradual shift away from a vanguard party approach toward an acceptance of lib…
Decolonization
1947-1962 The collapse of colonial empires. practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence. Inspired by self determination and weakness of Western Nations
38th Parallel
Dividing line between North and South Korea. Ended in stalemate.
North Korea
After WWII, the Soviets and Americans divided Korea into North Korea and South Korea. This section came under soviet influence and became communist. Since the 1940's, it has become one of the most isolated…
South Korea
the antagonism between the Soviet Union and the US led to the establishment of 2 separate Korean governments. This democratic country was overruled by the US and Syngman Rhee was installed as president.
Korean War
the 'Forgotten War'; 1950-1953
Domino Theory
President Eisenhower's theory that if Vietnam fell communist, other countries would also soon fall communist; like dominoes. Therefore, it was important to keep Vietnam from falling communist
South East Asia Treaty Organization
SEATO an international organization for collective defense primarily created to block communism gains in Southeast Asia. Signed by Australia, France, New Zealand, Pakistan (including East Pakistan, now Bangladesh), Philippines, Thailand, United Kingdom, United States. (…
French Indochina
(DDE) a French colony that included Vietnam , Laos, and Cambodia, but Vietminh captured the French fortress of Dien Bien Phy, North was a Communist State, south independent, they wanted to resist of Communism.
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese communist leader
Vietminh
1946 - 1954 an organization of Vietnamese Communists and other nationalist groups that fought for Vietnamese independence from the French
Viet Cong
North Vietnamese sympathizers who fought against the US using guerilla tactics
Vietnam War
a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States. Proxy war between…
Ho Chi Minh Trail
Supply route from North Vietnam to Viet Cong in South Vietnam
Tet Offensive
Surprise attack by NVA and Viet Cong on major cities in the South during a Vietnamese holiday; military victory for US, but political victory for V.C; was the turning point in the war
Paris Agreement
1973, The agreement for ending the war and restoring peace in Vietnam after a decade of war, Vietnam finally indicated that it wished to cease fire with the US. The agreement was a success.
Chinese Civil War
1927-1949, War between communist Mao Zse Tong and nationalist Chaing-Kai Shek. The communists took over and forced the nationalists to retreat to Taiwan. Between KMT and CCP, and the Chinese Communist Party were victorious over the KMT.
People's Republic of China
October 1949, Communist government of China at end of long civil war between the Nationalists (KMT, Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek) and the Communists (CCP under Mao Zedong). The Kuomintang armies had been routed and withdrew to Taiwan.
Great Leap Forward
Plan to rapidly industrialize China during the 1950's
Cultural Revolution
a social-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 until 1976. its stated goal was to preserve 'true' Communist ideology in the country by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements
Tiananmen Square
Protests in 1989
Partition of India and Pakistan
Pre-1930, public wanted an united India. Post-1930, Muslims wanted a state of their own in fear that Muslim communities would face discrimination and danger in a predominantly Hindu India. The borders of the new st…
Jawaharlal Nehru
Served from 1947-1964. Independent "non aligned" Indian statesman. He succeeded Mohandas K. Gandhi as leader of the Indian National Congress. He negotiated the end of British colonial rule in India and became India's first p…
Kashmir
an area in southwestern Asia whose sovereignty is disputed between Pakistan and India. Hindu ruler of mostly Muslim nation created tension.
Indira Gandhi
Served from 1966-1977. Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, India's first female prime minister. She was also prime minister of India. There was a lot of religious tension between the Hindus and Sikhs. In previous matters, In…
Bangladesh
Formerly East Pakistan. a Muslim republic in southern Asia bordered by India to the north and west and east and the Bay of Bengal to the south. independent in 1972. India surrounded by both Bangla…
Benazir Bhutto
a Pakistani politician who chaired the Pakistan People's Party and the first woman elected to lead a Muslim State. She has been elected twice and was Pakistan's first and only female prime minister. She hea…
Pan-Arabism
a movement that calls for unification among the peoples and countries of the Arab World, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Arabian Sea. It is closely connected to Arab nationalism, which asserts that the A…
Arab League
Formally called the League of Arab States, includes Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Yemen, and Iraq. Formed with British encouragement, as a bulwark against Soviet expansion into the Middle East.
Gamal Abdel Nasser
1918-1970, Arab leader, set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination, nationalized the Suez canal, led two wars against the Monarch Zionist state, remained a symbol of independence and pride, returned to socialism, national…
Aswan Dam
built in 1956 to control the flooding of the Nile River. The dam gives Egyptian farmers a more dependable source of water for their crops. It also gives Egypt electrical power. Established by Nasser.
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan
1979, A nine-year conflict involving Soviet forces supporting the Marxist People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (Amin) government against the Mujahideen (Muslim) Guerrilla resistance. Anti communist guerrillas received support from US and Great Britain; USSR withdrew→ unsuccessful.
Mujahedin
Muslim fighters in Afghanistan. The best-known were the various loosely aligned Afghan opposition groups, which initially rebelled against the incumbent pro-Soviet (DRA) government during the late 1970s. Supported by the United States during war against Russia.
Iranian Revolution
(1978-1979) a revolution against Mohammad Reza Shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader. Shah lost to the Ayatollah. Traditional Sh…
Mohammad Reza Shah
September 16, 1941 - February 11, 1979. Iranian Revolution--was the monarch of Iran until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11. He was the second and last monarch of the House of Pahlav…
The White Revolution
1963, Iran "a step towards modernization," a far-reaching series of reforms by the Shah Mohammad Reza . Muhammad Reza Shah's series of economic and social reforms built especially to strengthen those classes that supported…
SAVAK
The secret police, domestic security and intelligence service established by Iran's Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi by recommendation of the UK government and with the help of the CIA, and Israel's Mossad. It was on…
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
At first was sent into exile, He came back and established a parallel government. Defeat of Revolutionary Guard during the air force mutiny led to mass overruns of army bases, secret police HQ, and o…
Zionists
a Jewish political movement that, in its broadest sense, has supported the self-determination of the Jewish people in a sovereign Jewish national homeland. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the Zionist movement conti…
Palestinians
A displaced group of Arabs who lived or still live in the area formerly called Palestine and now called Israel. Attempted to get recognized as their own nation but were relocated by Israel.
UNSCOP (The United Nations Special Committee On Palestine)
1947, Committee by the General Assembly to propose a solution to the Palestine problem. The majority report recommended the formation of two politically independent states with an economic union. Region favored Israel because of resou…
Resolution 181
UN Partition Plane for Palestine was a resolution adopted in 1947 by the General Assembly of the UN (UNSCOP). It recommended the end of the British Mandate for Palestine and the partition of the terri…
Arab-Israeli War (1948 )
War which took place from May 1948 to January 1949. It was fought over the disputed land of Palestine and culminated in a Jewish victory. Referred to in Israel as the War of Independence,…
1956 Suez Crisis
Arab-Israeli Conflict--this crisis unfolded in 1956 when Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized the Canal, provoking a joint intervention of British, French, and Israeli forces.
Six-Day War
1967 Israel attacks Syria, Jordan, and Egypt. Israel won and got the west bank including east jerusalem from jordan, the golan heights from syria, and the sinai peninsula and gaza strip from egypt. United St…
The West Bank
is a landlocked territory and is the eastern Part of the Palestinian territories on the west bank of the River Jordan. It was captured by Israel during the Six-Day War in June, 1967.
The Gaza Strip
a coastal strip of land along the Mediterranean Sea. It borders Egypt on the south-west and Israel on the south, east and north. The area is recognized internationally as part of the Palestinian territories. Ac…
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
1964, under the Arab League to restrict Palestinian resistance to ensure that the Arab League was in control of the movement. Yassar Arafat becomes the chairman in 1969. an umbrella organization which included different resist…
Yasir Arafat
Arab-Israeli Conflict--known as the father of Palestinian nationalism, he was the leader of the PLO and the Palestinian Autonomous Region in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank city of Jericho. An enigmatic figure…
Anwar Sadat
Former President of Egypt (1st Arab leader to recognize and make peace with Israel) He was assassinated Oct. 6 1981 for making peace with Israel.
1973 Yom Kippur War
fought from October 25, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria. The war began when the coalition launched a joint surprise attack on Israel on Yom Kippur w…
Camp David Talks
September 17, 1978 signed by Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem following 12 days of secret negotiations at Camp David. The 2 frame work agreements were signed at the White Ho…
1982 Lebanon War
June 6th, 1982 when the Israel Defense Forces invaded southern Lebanon, the government of Israel launched the military operation after the Abu Nidal Organization's assassination attempt against Israel's ambassador to the UK, Shlomo Argov. Is…
Intifada
an uprising by Palestinian Arabs (in both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank) against Israel in the late 1980s and again in 2000
Oslo Accords
An agreement in 1993 in which Israeli prime minister Rabin granted Palestinian self-rule in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank.
Level 254