Level 263
Level 264

Conflicts in the Middle East


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Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Organization that attempts to regulate the production of oil exports to maximize revenues; allowed countries to modernize, promote industrialization, economic development, social programs
Middle Eastern countries that benefit from oil
Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, other countries; most members of OPEC
Oil in Middle East
2/3 of world's oil reserves; caused internal clashes within countries/societies; strategic importance led other countries to involve in Middle Eastern conflicts
Islamism
Islamic fundamentalism; movement to reorder government and society according to Islamic laws
What do Islamists believe?
Muslim countries have strayed from path of true Islam by following Western economic/political models
Increased Islamism
Islamism increased in Egypt, Iran, Iraq; led to conflicts within government/society
Israel conflict
Most countries don't recognize its right to exist; some countries repeatedly attack Israel; series of wars led to expansion of Israel; Israel controls more land than in did in 1948; many Palestinian Arabs live under Israeli control
What did Egypt demand in 1967?
Demanded UN remove troops from Gaza Strip and Sinai Peninsula
Gulf of Aqaba
Israel's route to the Black Sea
What did Egypt do?
Closed off Gulf of Aqaba and moved into Sinai Peninsula
Israel
Which country attacked first?
Six-Day War
1967 Israel attacks Syria, Jordan, and Egypt. Israel won and got the west bank including east jerusalem from jordan, the golan heights from syria, and the sinai peninsula and gaza strip from egypt. United St…
What did Israel gain control of?
Golan Heights, Sinai Peninsula, Gaza Strip, West Bank, East Jerusalem
Yom Kippur War
Surprise attack on Israel by Egypt and Syria in 1973 to gain land back; Arabs made gains in beginning
Golda Meir
Leader of Israel's government; Israel not prepared for attack and got military support from U.S.; pushed back Egypt/Syria with help of U.S.
Oil embargo
During war, Arab members of OPEC refused to sell oil to countries supporting Israel including U.S.; price of oil increased
Anwar Sadat
Former President of Egypt (1st Arab leader to recognize and make peace with Israel) He was assassinated Oct. 6 1981 for making peace with Israel.
Jimmy Carter
U.S. president that helped facilitate peace agreements between Egypt and Israel; invited Sadat and Begin to Camp David
Menachem Begin
Israel's prime minister
Camp David
Presidential retreat in Maryland
Camp David Accords
Signed by Israel and Egypt in 1978; Egypt recognized Israel's right to exist, Israel returned Sinai Peninsula to Egypt
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
1964, under the Arab League to restrict Palestinian resistance to ensure that the Arab League was in control of the movement. Yassar Arafat becomes the chairman in 1969. an umbrella organization which included different resist…
Yasser Arafat
Leader of Palestine in 1969; launched guerrilla attacks against Israel first from Jordan then Lebanon
How did Israel react?
Invaded Lebanon in 1978 and 1982; built settlements in West Bank and Gaza Strip
Intifada
an uprising by Palestinian Arabs (in both the Gaza Strip and the West Bank) against Israel in the late 1980s and again in 2000
Oslo Records
PLO leader Arafat and Rabin negotiated to end violence in 1993; called for Palestinians to gradually gain control over governing West Bank and Gaza Strip
Yitzhak Rabin
Israeli's prime minister
What happened n 1998?
Israel and Egypt supposed to sign permanent agreement; extremists undermined peace process
Hamas
Terrorist group/political organization depending on viewpoint.
How did Rabin die?
Israel religious fanatic assassinated him in 1995
Second Intifida
Began in 2000; Palestinian youths and security forces with guns and Hamas suicide bombings; Israel sent troops backed by tanks, fighter jets, helicopter gunships in West Bank/Gaza Strip
Mahmoud Abbas
Leader of Palestine after Arafat died in 2004
Ariel Sharon
Israel's prime minister after Rabin; decided to withdraw from Gaza Strip and parts of West Bank; turned it over to Palestines in 2005
Hamas took control
What happened in Palestinian parliament in 2006?
What happened in 2006?
Militants kidnapped Israeli soldiers along Gaza/Lebanon border; Israel launched air strikes and ground offensive to root out extremists and secure borders
Iranian Revolution
(1978-1979) a revolution against Mohammad Reza Shah of Iran led by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, which resulted in Iran becoming an Islamic republic with Khomeini as its leader. Shah lost to the Ayatollah. Traditional Sh…
Ayotollah Rulollah Khomeni
Shiite Muslim; led protests; leader of Iran after shah
Theocracy
Government run by religious leaders
What happened to the shah?
Went to U.S. to get medical treatment; foreign policy became anti-Western
U.S. embassy
Iranian revolutionaries seized ship in Tehran and took 66 Americans hostage in 1979; demanded shah leave U.S.; shah quickly left but hostages not released until January 1981
Islamic state
Headed by Khomeni as "Supreme Religious Leader"; religious leaders controlled military, laws, courts, education; public morality: no mingling of opposite sexes, women wear veil, no alcohol
Iran-Iraq War
Iraq attacked Iran because border disputes and Hussein wanted to take advantage of revolutionary chaos in Iran; Iran's government called for revolution among Iraq's Shiite population; 500,000 dead on each side; Iraq used chemical weapons
Kurdish Iraqis
Supported Iran
What happened in 1988?
After long stalemate, Iran and Iraq agreed to cease-fire
Saddam Hussein
Built up Iraq's military; accused Kuwait of drilling into Iraq oil field and stealing oil; invaded Kuwait
Kuwait
Country bordering Iraq
How did UN react?
Passed economic sanctions to pull Iraq out of Kuwait but failed
Persian Gulf War
Which war began in 1991
What did UN do after war?
Continued Iraq's economic sanctions; insisted Iraq destroy chemical/biological/nuclear weapons; UN weapon inspectors went to Iraq to check and Iraq failed to cooperate
After 9/11
U.S. thought Hussein was supplying weapons to terrorists; weapon inspectors didn't find weapons but U.S. believed they were hiding them
Iraq War
Operation Iraqi Freedom; U.S.-led coalition invaded Iraq in 2003 and forced Hussein from power
Growing insurgency
Armed rebellion by groups inside and outside Iraq targeted coalition forces, their allies, innocent civilians; attacks grew deadly
What did the coalition forces do?
Created democratic government in Iraq; transferred political power to Iraq in 2004
What happened in 2005?
Iraq voted in its first multiparty election in 50 years in 2005; made constitution to make Iraq an Islamic federal democracy
What happened November 5, 2006?
Saddam Hussein sentenced to death by hanging
What did Bush do in 2008?
Agreement to remove troops from Iraq December 31, 2011
December 18, 2011
All U.S. troops out of Iraq
Level 265