Level 265
Level 266

Human Relationships

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Prosocial behavior
benefits others or has positive social consequences
behavior that benefits another person, sometimes at some costs
Kin selection theory
people are more likely to sacrifice themselves for relatives than non-relatives - Hamilton 1963
Selfish-gene theory
instead self-sacrifice to promote one's own genes is egoism - Dawkins
altruistic acts are returned and pays off in the long term
Simmons 1977
close relatives were more likely to be kidney donors, 86% parents said yes, 47% of siblings agreed
Kin selection strength
supported by empirical studies - organ donors
Kin selection limitation
cannot explain unrelated donors, acts of bravery or adoption of children
Batson 1981
helper's motives determine whether a behavior is altruistic or not - study with Elaine - watch her being shocked, asked if would take her place, or leave. High empathy -- most agreed to help, low empathy - easy escape
Negative state relief model
Cialdini 1973, altruism could be seen as a strategy to avoid feeling sad or upset (egoistic motive) and not true altruism
individualist and collectivist cultures
cultural dimension - cross cultural differences
Whiting and Whiting 1975
Comparison of 6 cultures child-rearing practices - degree of modernization influences prosocial behavior - kids who receive an allowance have a lower level of prosocial behavior
Miller, 1990 - cultural differences influence perception of social responsibility
used Hindu and Americans - Hindus have a greater sense of moral and social responsibility
Kitty Genovese murder - less likely to help if passive bystanders are present
Latane & Darley, 1968
diffusion of responsibility, pluralistic ignorance, evaluation apprehension, college students in booth with headphones, confederate stages a seizure - if participant was alone, 85% reported seizure, 31% reported seizure when there were four students
Pilliavin, 1969
Subway Samaritan - effects of various variables on helping behavior - person who appears ill more likely to receive help than one who appeared drunk. Cost-reward model of helping - weigh cost of helping,…
Fisher 2004
mutual nest building, grooming, close proximity, separation anxiety - equivalent to romantic love -biological origin of attraction - bio origins of attraction
Wedekind, 1995
Sweaty T shirt experiment, mate preference based on genetic makeup in relation to one's immune system, women preferred odors of men with immune systems different from them - bio origins of attraction
Newcomb, 1961
students with similar attitudes tend to become friends - cog origins of attraction
Markey and Markey, 2007
Participants wanted a romantic partner similar to themselves -cog origins of attraction
Festinger, 1950
Results showed that proximity or opportunities to bump into each other increased chances for friendships - sociocultural origins of attraction
Buss, 1990
cross cultural factors in attraction: mutual attraction and love, good earning capacity, youth, physical attractiveness - sociocultural origins of attraction
Fincham, 2004
association between attribution and marital satisfaction
criticism, contempt, defensiveness, stonewalling
Gottman's Theory of the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse
Singh, 2005
arranged marriages in India, seem to work
Fiske, 2004
arranged marriages last longer than romantic marriages
Sternberg, 1986
triangular theory of love, intimacy, passion, commitment
Buunk, 1988
characteristic of happy and unhappy couples
Buss and Shackelford, 1997
equity theory in marriage
Clark and Mills, 1979
romantic relationships based on sharing and belonging, not equity theory
Murray and Holmes, 1997
over time, partners in committed relationships created positive illusions of their partners
Bandura, 1977
Social learning theory - observational learning/modeling
Totten, 2003
girlfriend abuse in Canada
Wolfgang and Ferracuti, 1967
violence is used to as a means to defend honor and maintain status
Nisbett and Cohen, 1996
Culture of honor - southerners/northerners, response to an insult
McAndrew, 2009
evolutionary explanation of link between testosterone and agression
Olweus Bullying Prevention Program - Norway - successful 48% reduction
Black, 2007
mixed results to OBPP in US due to less rigorous implementation, lack of resources
MACS, 2002
Metropolitan Area Child Study - 2 inner-city schools in Midwest US to reduce bullying
Shavlev, 1995
effects of short-term exposure to violence - terrorist attack in Israel, significant levels of PTSD
Wang, 2010
effects of long-term exposure to bullying, cyber bullying victims and depression
Carney and Hazler, 2007
changes in cortisol levels related to bullying - increase with short term bullying, long term bullying = low levels of cortisol = negative social, physical, psychological health
Level 267