Level 266
Level 267

European History in the 20th Century


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Social Democrats
a political movement that uses principles of democracy to change a capitalist country to a socialist one
William II
Kaiser of Germany
Third Republic
1870-1940, responsible for the Dreyfus affair, thought of as a weak government but obviously lasted for 70 years, was destroyed by Hitler
Dual Monarchy
When two separate kingdoms are ruled by the same monarch
Major Henry
was a French Lieutenant-Colonel in 1897 involved in the Dreyfus affair. Arrested for having forged evidence against Alfred Dreyfus, he was found dead in his prison cell. He was considered a hero by the Anti-Dreyfusards.
Major Picquart
Picquart discovered that that the memorandum (bordereau) used to convict Captain Alfred Dreyfus, had actually been the work of Major Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy. Several high-ranking generals warned Colonel Picquart to conceal his discovery but Picq…
Anti-Semitic League
this nationalist league was particularly active during the Dreyfus Affair. Beside spreading anti-Semitic propaganda, the League was also anti-Masonry and anti-Communist. It had as general delegates Jacques de Biez. Jules Guérin was an active me…
Ferdinand Esterhazy
a commissioned officer in the French armed forces during the second half of the 19th century who has gained notoriety as a spy for the German Empire and the actual perpetrator of the ac…
Education Act (1902)
1902, The Act provided funds for denominational religious instruction in voluntary elementary schools, owned primarily by the Church of England and Roman Catholics. It ended the divide between voluntary schools, which were largely administere…
Iskra
The spark, Early 1900's Russia, It was a magazine\newspaper that helped the Bolsheviks gain power before the first Russian revolution
Russo-Japanese War
The 1904-19005 war between Russia and Japan fought over imperial influence and territory in northeast China. Japan wins and becomes the first non European world power.
Nicholas II
Last Emperor of Russia, conservative, Slogan = Orthadoxy, autocracy, nationalism.
Zemstvos
organ of rural self-government in the Russian Empire and Ukraine; established in 1864 to provide social and economic services, Generally dominated by the nobility, the zemstvos suffered after 1890 from legislation that restricted their author…
George Plekhanov
Founder of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, he was a persuasive writer with a lot of followers. Believed that to be a democratic party they themselves had to be democratic
Lenin
Joined the Russian Social Democratic Party, became a revolutionary when his brother was executed. Founded the Iskra (spark), Wrote What is to be Done in 1903, ends up taking power in Russia after the revolution
What is to be Done?
1903, written by Lenin, wrote that he believed that there needed to be a small vanguard to speak for the people.
Duma
The meet and eventually dissolve and can't get much done. The Duma were council assemblies which were created by the Czar of Russia. Simply, it is a form of Russian governmental institution that was fo…
Cadets
One of the 2 groups of liberals that split after the October Manifest, also known as constitutional democrats, this group believed that the manifest was just a start and that more needed to be done.
P. Stolypin
served as Prime Minister and the leader of the third Duma, from 1906 to 1911. His tenure was marked by efforts to counter revolutionary groups and by the implementation of noteworthy agrarian reforms. Stolypin's ref…
Fabians
The first Fabian Society pamphlets[10] advocating tenets of social justice coincided with the zeitgeist of Liberal reforms during the early 1900s. The Fabian proposals however were considerably more progressive than those that were enacte…
Edward VII
In the last year of his life, Edward became embroiled in a constitutional crisis when the Conservative majority in the House of Lords refused to pass the "People's Budget" proposed by the Liberal governmen…
Emily Davison
a militant activist who fought for women's suffrage in Britain. She was jailed on nine occasions and force-fed 49 times. She is best known for stepping in front of King George V's horse Anme…
Joseph Chamberlain
British politician in the early 1900s, came up with a tariff plan to put a tariff around all of England and give the money to the lower classes, this was opposed by the liberals…
Boer War
1899-1902, Guerilla warfare is seen here which the British didn't know how to fight so they create the 1st concentration camps in response. So even though the British win, many fee like they lost t…
New Liberalism
Created from a split in the liberal party in the 1990s, new liberals believed in government and government intervention (classical liberals did not)
Herbert Asquith
Established a famous political family and believed in waiting before making a decision. Prime Minister from 1908-1916
David Lloyd George
A radical populist, famous for sleeping around the upper classes. Worked with Churchill in the early 1900s and pushed for reforms including the Age pension act and 8 hour work days. Eventually would become prime minister
B.E.F.
British Expeditionary Force, created by Richard Haldane, a highly trained elite force of the army. This was the start of the set up of the British army for WWI.
Old Age Pension Act (1908)
1908, pushed for by Churchill and Lloyd George, set to give the older people money (the idea was stolen from Germany)
Winston Churchill
Famous for his reckless courage in war. In order to repair the British navy he (and Lloyd George) raise many taxes (or at least help make it happen), to effect conservatives, he's never ever …
Dreadnoughts
The dreadnought was the predominant type of battleship in the early 20th century.
1909 State Budget
1909, The …
George V
Conservative, crowned in 1910, appalled that the lords vetoed a money bill, so he threatened them saying that if they vetoed another bill he would create 450 new aristocrats which would severely diminish the l…
Parliament Act of 1911
1911, helped pass by the George v's threat against the aristocrats. This bill prevents the house of lords from vetoing, the could veto a bill twice but the third time it would go straight to the monarch.
W.S.P.U
1903, Women's Social and Political Union, founded by the Pankhurst family. Helped gain women's rights in the early 1900's, including using violence and terrorism to get the attention of men.
Pankhursts
A british family that helped found the W.S.P.U, many members were constantly jailed, violence terrorism I know the drill from the previous card.
Sir Edward Carson
was an Irish unionist politician, barrister and judge. He was leader of the Irish Unionist Alliance and Ulster Unionist Party between 1910 and 1921. During the early 1900's he believed that he would tak…
Ulster
to seek to ensure the passing of the Home Rule Bill. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, 200,000 Irishmen, both Southern and Northern, of all religious sects volunteered to serve in…
Leopold von Ranke
A german historian, Tries to write history base on facts
Id
The basic drives of human beings, lies in the unconscious mind, Believed that sexual desire was the most important desire
Ego
Lies in the border between the conscious and unconscious mind. The sense of who you are, your identity
Superego
Lies in the conscious mind, your moral conscience, a monitor on your behavior
Oedipus Complex
The ideal that boys attach themselves to their mother and see their fathers as rivals. Was used to by Freud to explain that drives are present at all ages (even sexual drives). How thi…
The Interpretation of Dreams (1900)
1900, a book written by Freud, The book introduces Freud's theory of the unconscious with respect to dream interpretation, and also first discusses what would later become the theory of the Oedipus complex.
Alfred Adler
One of Freud's students, believed that Freud put too much of an emphasis on sex, he believed that people craved power above all else.
Carl Jung
Student of Freud, believed that religion was not just fantasy and that you need to understand it. He also believed in a collective unconscious (which Freud detested) and developed personality types (Ex: extroverts and introverts)
Wilhelm Wundt
Developed the notion of experimental psychology, which has to do with the senses, short term memory, etc.
Alfred Binet
Interested in abnormal levels of intelligence and developed the IQ test, the score was a way to help figure out who you were.
Ivan Pavlov
Worked with behavioral issues, PAVLOVS DOGS. This was a way to reenforce behavior in children
Friedrich Tonnies
Makes the distinction between a society and a community. Community is closely knit a society is not. This helped describe the social institutions of the industrial revolution as people moves from farms to cities.
Emile Durkheim
Tried to study the loneliness within a society, He studied suicides, what groups committed suicide, age, society, gender, etc.
Max Weber
Considered the father of sociology, Important for the study of bureaucracy (chain of command), when you join a chain of command whatever roll you play in that chain you will take on the behavio…
George Bernard Shaw
was an Irish playwright and a co-founder of the London School of Economics. Although his first profitable writing was music and literary criticism, in which capacity he wrote many highly articulate pieces of journalism,…
Emile Zola
was a French writer, the most important exemplar of the literary school of naturalism and an important contributor to the development of theatrical naturalism. He was a major figure in the political liberalization of Fr…
Oscar Wilde
At the height of his fame and success, while his masterpiece, The Importance of Being Earnest (1895), was still on stage in London, Wilde had the Marquess of Queensberry prosecuted for libel. The Marquess…
High Culture
Great art, classical music, great literature, all of which were very important in the romantic period. Supposed to be better than the new mass culture. Intellectuals defended high culture against mass culture that took hold in the early 1900s.
Gymnasium
Greater education helped assist the raise of mass culture. More people going to secondary schools (gymnasiums in Austria), where the elite are trained.
Fleet Street
Street in the city of London, known for it's Newspapers and where Northcliffe went and created his popular magazine and the Daily Mail
Lord Northcliffe
Created the Daily Mail the most popular newspaper in Britain, he also created the first tabloids, and added some of the first photos to newspapers (drawings had been used before) He even buys the Lo…
Daily Mail
Concieved as a newspaper for the working and middle classes in Britain, created by Lord Northcliffe, Printed a lot of human interest stories, in 1903 the paper is made smaller. Helped spread information faster …
New Journalism
1 scare headlines in huge print, often of minor news
Daily Sketch
First tabloid, created by Northcliffe in 1903, was made smaller for the working class people who didn't want to carry around a big newspaper all day
The Times
a failing newspaper for the upper classes, it was bought and reformed by Northcliffe, it was one of the most respectable newspapers and Northcliffe made it popular again
Emile Berliner
Creates a disk for capturing sound, initially they were mechanical recordings with crappy quality but bands would work well (as opposed to voices), it helped give rise to the music industry and communication industry.
Caruso
Caruso's 25-year career, stretching from 1895 to 1920, included 863 appearances at the New York Metropolitan Opera before he died at the age of 48. Thanks in part to his tremendously popular phonograph records, Ca…
Sir Edward Grey
Following the declaration of World War I Grey found that British foreign policy was constrained by mainly military events that were outside his control. During the war, Grey, along with the Marquess of Crewe…
Raymond Poincare
Trained in law, Poincaré was elected a Deputy in 1887, and served in the cabinets of Dupuy and Ribot. In 1902, he co-founded the Democratic Republican Alliance, the most important center-right party under the T…
Black Hand
Serbian terrorist organization responsible for the death of ArchDuke Ferdinand which led to the beginning of WWI.
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Admiral Tirpitz
Tirpitz took the modest Imperial Navy and, starting in the 1890s, turned it into a world-class force that could threaten the British Royal Navy. His navy, however, was not strong enough to confront the Bri…
Triple Entente
Semi Formal alliance between Russia, France and Britain
Baden-Powell
Several of his military books, written for military reconnaissance and scout training in his African years, were also read by boys. Based on those earlier books, he wrote Scouting for Boys, published in 190…
Bosnian Crisis
also known as the Annexation crisis, or the First Balkan Crisis, erupted into public view when on 6 October 1908, Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Russia, the Ottoman Empire, Britain, Italy, Ser…
Second Moroccan Crisis
The Germans demanded the French congo and threatened attack. The British intervene and France is given control of Morocco and Germany gets part of Africa. This is proof that Europe was unstable (the germans acted irrationally)
Balkan League
Formed in 1912, formed by Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro, and directed against the Ottoman Empire. Helped contribute to the tension int he powder keg that led to WWI
Edith Cavell
was a British nurse. She is celebrated for saving the lives of soldiers from both sides without distinction and in helping some 200 Allied soldiers escape from German-occupied Belgium during World War I, for w…
Paul von Hindenburg
was a Prussian-German field marshal, statesman, and politician, and served as the second President of Germany from 1925 to 1934. Considered a war hero and put into power just before Hitler, his weak policies…
Erich Ludendorff
After the war, Ludendorff became a prominent nationalist leader, and a promoter of the stab-in-the-back legend, convinced that the German Army had been betrayed by Marxists and Republicans in the Versailles Treaty. He took …
Level 268