Level 267
Level 268

European History in the 20th Century II


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National Service Act (1916)
1916, British draft for WWI,The Act specified that men from 18 to 41 years old were liable to be called up for service in the army unless they were married, widowed with children, servin…
Walter Rathenau
was a German industrialist, politician, writer, and statesman who served as Foreign Minister of Germany during the Weimar Republic. He was assassinated on June 24, 1922, two months after the signing of the Treaty of Rapallo, 1922.
DORA
Defense of the Realm Act, essentially gave the British government to do anything it wanted for the war. It helped contribute to the total war aspect of WWI ash the British consolidated their power during this period.
Battle of Jutland
British V. Germany battle, 1916, really the Germans won and had sunk more ships than the British but couldn't tell through thick mist so they left and the British were able to trap them in port.
Passchendale
A Belgium town and the sight of a WWI battle, The British soldiers got stuck in the mud and suffered heavy casualties.
Kemal Ataturk
he led the Turkish national movement in the Turkish War of Independence. Having established a provisional government in Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies. His military campaigns led to victory in…
Karl Leibknecht
was a German socialist and a co-founder with Rosa Luxemburg of the Spartacist League and the Communist Party of Germany. He is best known for his opposition to World War I in the Reichstag…
Rosa Luxemburg
In 1915, after the SPD supported German involvement in World War I, she and Karl Liebknecht co-founded the anti-war Spartakusbund ("Spartacus League") which eventually became the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). During the German Revolu…
Pandemic
The spread of a disease across a large area.
Fourteen Points
The list of Wilson's demands for Germany.
Council of Ten
Broken down into council of 10 with 2 reps from each country (USA, Britain, France, Japan and Italy)
Plenary Conference
SO DONE
Sudetandland
is the German name (used in English in the first half of the 20th century) to refer to those northern, southwest, and western areas of Czechoslovakia which were inhabited mostly by German speakers, specifically…
Danzig
is the German name (and former official appellation) of Gdańsk, a city in northern Poland.
John Foster Dulles
Dulles played a major role in designing the Dawes Plan that reduced German payments and temporarily resolved the reparations issue by having American firms loan money to German states and private companies; the money…
Lawrence of Arabia
Had to do with the Ottoman Empire Settlement, he helped the Turks get resettled after the empire broke up.
League of Nations
Created by Wilson. Essentially a world government. There's an assembly, council, an international court of justice and a secretariat (leader). The USA is the first country to turn it down. Created a notion of international cooperation.
Alexander Kerensky
After the February Revolution Kerensky served as Minister of Justice in the democratic Russian Provisional Government. In May he became Minister of War. In July he became the second Prime Minister until it was overth…
Lavr Kornilov
He is today best remembered for the Kornilov Affair, an unsuccessful endeavor in Au…
Rasputin
The supposed healer of Tzar Nicholas II son, helped bring down the empire because the people hated him and he was close to the Tsarina and the Tsarina helped influence the Tsar.
Soviet
Councils of workers and soldiers.
Prince Lvov
Lvov was made head of the provisional government founded by the Duma on 2 March. Unable to rally sufficient support, he resigned in July 1917 in favour of his Minister of Justice, Alexander Kerensky.
Leon Trotsky
a great writer, orator and administrator. Help orchestrate the collectivization of Russia after the revolutions. Was Lenin's right hand man and should have taken over for him when he died but he was bullied…
Cheka
A secret police force much like the Tsar's.
Sergei Einstein
was a Soviet Russian film director and film theorist, a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage. He is noted in particular for his silent films Strike (1924), Battleship Potemkin (1925) and October (19…
Pravda
a Russian political newspaper associated with the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. The newspaper was started by the Russian Revolutionaries during the pre-World War I days and emerged as a leading newspaper of…
Hannah Arendt
Coined the word totalitarianism. She said that the law codes in totalitarianism were different the distinction between natural and positive law are lost, and that politics are total in this type of state there…
Comintern
Founded by Lenin in 1919, They were hoping for a worldwide communist revolution and looked specifically at China. They trained Chinese to bring communist ideas back home with them and preach it. Including Chang-Kai-Shek,…
Mao
Mao Ze Dong, a Chinese communist trained by the Russians, he hid in caves while Chang-Kai-Shek was killing communists. He eventually would come out of hiding and challenge Shek and win control of China.
Gos Plan
Created by Stalin to reinvent Russia's economy. One of its main duties was the creation of the Five-Year Plans for the National Economy of the Soviet Union. This included reworking the steel industry and collec…
Kulaks
Essentially the landed gentry, wealthy private farmers who didn't want to give up their land, they were purged by Stalin
Hermann Goring
A member of the NSDAP from its early days, Göring was wounded in 1923 during the failed coup known as the Beer Hall Putsch. After helping Adolf Hitler take power in 1933, he became…
Mein Kampf
Hitlers book that he wrote in prison in which he lays out his plan to take control of Germany, no one took it seriously when in retrospect they really should have.
Joseph Gobbels
was a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
Nuermburg Laws
1935, The beginning the process of discriminating against jews.
Beer Hall Putch
Hitlers failed "revolution" in Germany, he pretty much stood on a table and declared a revolution which led to many people being killed and Hitler being thrown in jail (he should have been killed…
Sturmabteilung (SA)
functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party. It played a key role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Their main assignments were providing protection for Nazi ral…
Ernst Roehm
was a German officer in the Bavarian Army and later an early Nazi leader. He was a co-founder of the Sturmabteilung the Nazi Party militia, and later was its commander. In 1934, as par…
Enabling Act
The act Hitler asked for after the burning of the Reichstag, it was granted and Hitler was given unspeakable amounts of power
People's Tribunal
A tribunal of the people?
Gregor Strasser
was a German politician and prominent figure in the Nazi Party. He became a rival to Adolf Hitler, resigned from his political offices in late 1932, and was murdered in 1934, during the "Night of the Long Knives".
Night of the Long Knives
Hitler became paranoid of people in his own party so on one night he took the S.S and killed people. Over 90 Nazi party members were killed on this night.
Heinrich Himmler
was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (SS), a military commander, and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Nazi Germany. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler later appointed him Commander of the Replacement (Home) Army…
Lebensraum
was an important component of Nazi ideology in Germany. The Nazis supported territorial expansionism to gain Lebensraum as being a law of nature for all healthy and vigorous peoples of superior races to displace pe…
Anschluss
1938, Germany absorbs Austria through this policy
Kapp Putsch
was a coup attempt in March 1920 aimed at undoing the results of the German Revolution of 1918-1919, overthrowing the Weimar Republic and establishing a right-wing autocratic government. It was supported by parts of…
Gustav Stresemann
was a German politician and statesman who served as Chancellor in 1923 (for a brief period of 102 days) and Foreign Minister 1923-1929, during the Weimar Republic. He was co-laureate of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1926.
John Maynard Keynes
In the 1930s, Keynes spearheaded a revolution in economic thinking, overturning the older ideas of neoclassical economics that held that free markets would, in the short to medium term, automatically provide full employment, as …
Bauhaus
was a school in Germany that combined crafts and the fine arts, and was famous for the approach to design that it publicized and taught. It operated from 1919 to 1933. the school was cl…
Walter Gropius
German architect who emphasized functionalism
Ramsay MacDonald
an illegitimate jew who was prime minister in 1924, his reign wasn't long but helped legitimize the labor party (of which he was later expelled)
Stavisky Affair
. In the 1930s he managed municipal pawnshops in Bayonne but also moved in financial circles. He sold lots of worthless bonds and financed his "hockshop" on the surety of what he called the emer…
Fifth Column
a group of people who undermine a larger group, such as a nation or a besieged city, from within. The activities of a fifth column can be overt or clandestine. Forces gathered in secret…
Avanti!
Founded by Mussolini, a socialist journal
Blackshirts
The color shirts Mussolini had the people of his party wear which signified their joining to the party. It was the beginning of people using theatrics in politics (later perfected by Hitler)
March on Rome
A "fake" March created by Mussolini after he legally came to power. He wanted his coming to power to seem more like a revolution and therefore convinced people to march on rome.
Acerbo Law
States that any party that gets the majority will then have 2\3 representation in the government. It gave Mussolini even more power (other went along with it because they believed that it was the …
G. Matteotti
was an Italian socialist politician. On 30 May 1924, he openly spoke in the Italian Parliament alleging the Fascists committed fraud in the recently held elections, and denounced the violence they used to gain vo…
Corporatism
Perfected by Mussolini, seemed to create a new era of cooperation between workers and managers with the state in the middle as mediator.
General Strike
in 1926 the pound is put on the gold standard which causes the strike (because it means that hours were cut and wages too if not both) the country essentially stopped all production, everyone …
Stanley Baldwin
The one figure that provides stability for Britain during the interwar period
Leon Blume
The leader of the popular front in France (all the left wing parties banded together to form the popular front)
Falange
the name assigned to several Spanish political movements and parties dating from the 1930s, and dovetailed with the Fascist movement in Italy.
Franco
General and leader of the Fascist army in the Spanish Civil war
International Brigades
Made it so those of other countries could volunteer to participate in the Spanish Civil War (one of these volunteers was Orwell). Made the war an international one.
Level 269