Level 270
Level 271

Ireland in the Twentieth Century


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nationalists
those in Ireland who wanted to gain more independence for Ireland from Britain
unionists
those in Ireland who wanted Ireland to remain within the United Kingdom of Great Britain
republicans
those in Ireland who wished to gain full independence for Ireland, didn't want a king to rule over them, and were prepared to use force if necessary
home rule
the policy followed by the Irish Parliamentary Party that offered a parliament in Ireland that could pass laws on areas that affected Ireland like agriculture and health while leaving other matters such as foreign affairs to Britain
gaelic athletic association (GAA)
sporting organisation set up by Michael Cusack and Maurice Davin in 1884 to promote traditional Gaelic games such as hurling and football
gaelic league
an organisation set up by Douglas Hyde and Eoin MacNeill in 1893 to promote the Irish language
1913 Dublin Lockout
industrial conflict between the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union and William Martin Murphy, the owner of the Dublin Tramways Company that resulted in a five-month strike
Irish citizen army
a military group set up by James Connolly to defend workers during the 1913 Lockout
solemn league and covenant
an agreement signed by unionists in 1912 that they would never accept home rule
ulster volunteer force (UVF)
a military group set up to oppose Home Rule in Ireland
Irish volunteer force
a military group set up by Irish nationalists in response to the creation of the UVF
castle document
a letter written by Joseph Plunkett that led Eoin MacNeill to believe that the Irish Volunteers were going to be made illegal by the British authorities
Sinn Fein
a political party set up by Arthur Griffith in 1905 that sought full independence for Ireland
Irish republican army (IRA)
the name given to those members of the Irish Volunteers who answered to Michael Collins
flying columns
the name given to Collins' IRA troops who used guerrilla tactics to attack British troops during the War of Independence
black and tans
the name given to the groups of ex-WWI British soldiers sent to Ireland to fight the IRA; recognised by the colour of their uniforms: khaki (tan) and a black/green jacket
bloody sunday (21 Nov 1920)
11 British secret service men were killed by the IRA and later 12 spectators and players at a match in Croke Park were killed by the Black and Tans in retaliation
the treaty
the agreement between the British government and representatives of the Irish government that ended the War of Independence
Irish free state
the title given to the new government of southern Ireland after the passing of the Treaty
regulars
soldiers who supported the Free State government
irregulars
soldiers who were against the Free State government
Cumann na nGaedhael
pro-treaty political party set up in 1922 and led by William T. Cosgrave
Fianna Fail
a political party set up by Eamon de Valera in 1926
Shannon scheme
a government project which involved building a hydroelectric power station on the River Shannon; completed in 1929
statute of Westminster (1931)
a law passed by Britain that allowed any country in the Commonwealth to pass any law that it wished; meant that Ireland could use it to dismantle the Treaty
Bunreacht na hEireann
the Irish name for the Constitution of Ireland passed in 1937
army conrades association (Blueshirts)
a fascist organisation set up in 1932 by Eoin O'Duffy; later changed its name to the National Guard
Fine Gael
a political party created in 1933 by merging Cumann na nGaedhael, the National Guard, and the Centre Party
the emergency
the name de Valera gave to WWII (1939-1945) in Ireland
glimmer-man
inspectors who checked that gas was not being used outside the rationed hours; comes from the glimmer of gas that remained in the pipes after the gas had been turned off
Level 272