Level 271
Level 272

Western Culture in the Twentieth Century


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the occult
Supernatural teachings and beliefs
Ernest Hemingway
U.S. author, nicknamed "Papa," known for his simple, clear style
F. Scott Fitzgerald
U.S. author of The Great Gatsby; often wrote about the very rich
William Faulkner
U.S. author known for his stream of consciousness technique
John Steinbeck
U.S. author of The Grapes of Wrath
the Harlem Renaissance
African-American cultural flowering in 1920s New York City
the New Age Movement
Mix of mysticism, belief in former lives, and personal fulfillment
existentialism
Philosophy that individuals create themselves by the choices they make
Black Muslims
American blacks who adopted the Islamic faith
the Lost Generation
Authors of the 1920s who wrote about disillusioned and rootless characters
James Joyce
Irish author who revolutionized modern fiction
stream of consciousness
Flow of a character's thoughts and mental images in a novel
symbolism
Writing on two levels of meaning
magazines
Where most U.S. short stories first appeared
Judaism and Islam
Next to Christianity, the two religious faiths with the most U.S. adherents
Jean-Paul Sartre
Noted French existentialist writer and philosopher
the ecumenical movement
Movement that seeks to unify Christians worldwide
Vatican Council II
Meeting of Catholic leaders that modernized the Church
Toni Morrison
African-American woman who won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1993
magic realism
Modern fiction that mixes fantastical and realistic events (e.g. Gabriel Garcia Marquez)
liberation theology
Push by clergy in Latin America to get the Church more involved in social reform
the Beats
American poets of the 1950s and 1960s who condemned middle-class life
Robert Frost
New Englander who was the most popular U.S. poet of his time
Tennessee Williams
U.S. dramatist who wrote A Streetcar Named Desire
Arthur Miller
U.S. dramatist who wrote The Crucible
Broadway
Best-known U.S. center of professional theater
rock and roll
New style of music first embraced by young people in the 1950s
T.S. Eliot
U.S. born British poet who wrote The Waste Land
Dylan Thomas
Welsh poet known for his stirring, passionate verse
Eugene O' Neill
First U.S. dramatist to win international recognition
theater of the absurd
Drama that emphasizes the illogical, like Waiting for Godot
jazz
Lively U.S. musical style developed in New Orleans, Memphis, and Chicago
Off-Off-Broadway
New York theaters that emphasize very inventive plays
the National Theatre
Theater company that succeeded Britain's famed Old Vic
Britain's government-supported Shakespearean company
the Royal Shakespeare Company
vaudeville
Formerly a popular form of stage entertainment, a combination of comedy, song, dancing, etc.
Tommy
The first rock opera
the National Endowment for the Arts
U.S. organization that makes grants to artistic groups
Sylvia Plath
This confessional woman poet committed suicide in 1963.
Yevgeny Yevtushenko
Critical Soviet poet, author of "Babi Yar"
Bertolt Brecht
German dramatist who wrote The Threepenny Opera
Lorraine Hansberry
U.S. dramatist who wrote A Raisin in the Sun
Germany
Country with the largest state-supported theater system
microfilm
Film that can store reduced images
postimpressionism
The attempt to move beyond impressionism
cubism
Style that used basic geometric shapes, such as cubes
expressionism
Style that expressed highly personal, intense views
pop art
U.S. comic-strip-style that showed common objects
op art
Use of color and patterns to create optical illusions
folk art (or primitive art)
Work of artists with little or no formal training
Grandma Moses
American primitive painter who started painting at age 76
surrealism
Painting that explored the unconscious mind
the Armory Show
First large U.S. modern art show, in 1913
abstract expressionism
Nonrepresentational style known for swirling masses of lines
minimal art
Paintings of simple shapes or objects with as little emotional content as possible
new realism
Painting that represents objects very exactly
Andrew Wyeth
Most popular U.S. painter of the mid-1900s, a realist known for Christina's World
Norman Rockwell
Enormously popular U.S. artist known for his Saturday Evening Post covers
Andy Warhol
U.S. pop artist known for his paintings of Campbell's soup cans
the Leica
Miniature 35-mm camera that revolutionized photographic equipment in 1924
Walker Evans, Dorothea Lange
U.S. documentary photographers of the 1930s
Alfred Stieglitz, Edward Steichen
Americans who helped develop photography as a creative art
fauvism
School of art that used extremely bright colors
dadaism
Absurd school of art
the Ashcan School
U.S. group that painted realistic street scenes of modern life
environmental sculpture
Sculptural works that are actually part of nature
Frank Lloyd Wright
U.S. architect whose buildings harmonized with their natural settings
landmark status
Buildings with this status may not be destroyed or significantly altered.
the World Trade Center
Spectacular New York City skyscraper complex with twin 110-story towers (see 09/11/2001)
the Empire State Building
King Kong's hangout; located in New York City, it is one of the world's tallest skyscrapers.
the Sears Tower
One of the world's tallest buildings, located in Chicago
organic forms
Sculptural shapes found in nature
Henry Moore
Sculptor known for vast reclining figures
Chicago
U.S. center of modern architecture in the early 1900s
the Bauhaus
Famed German school of design, founded in 1919
the international style
Plain, severe architectural style with expanses of steel and glass
reinforced concrete
Building material with metal rods for extra strength
Le Corbusier
Renowned Swiss architect of the international style
I.M. Pei
Chinese-American architect noted for broad, irregular geometric shapes
postmodernism
Architectural movement that rejects the international style
the mobile
Moving sculpture form invented by Alexander Calder
Constantin Brancusi
Romanian sculptor of Bird in Space
Louise Nevelson
American woman who assembled man-made or machine-made objects into sculptures
the Chicago School
Pioneering group of modern American architects
Walter Gropius
German architect who emphasized functionalism
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
The master of glass and steel architecture
prairie houses
Frank Lloyd Wright's long, low buildings
Level 273