Level 29
Level 30

Rome


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republic
a government ruled by elected representatives instead of a monarch
patrician
: wealthy landowner.
consuls
leaders of the ancient Roman Republic. Two consuls led the government at a time
dictator
A leader who has complete control of a country and who kills anyone who disagrees with him.
plebeians
farmers and other common people who lacked money and power in Ancient Rome
Law of the Twelve Tables
Created so the citizens could know what the laws were and appeal a judgment handed down by a patrician judge
Etruscans
People who ruled much of central Italy including Rome, taughed Rome alphabet, engineering, and the use of the arch Romans drove out the ruler in 509BCE
Tribunes
Elected officals of the plebeians, they had the power to veto or block laws which they felt were harmful to the plebeians
Veto
A power that the Tribunes had when dealing with laws they felt were unjust for the Plebeians`
Legion
Military unit which included 5,000 men, consisted of citizen-soldiers who originally fought without pay and had to supply their own weapon
Carthage
powerful city and empire of North Africa
The Punic Wars
The three wars between Rome and Carthage, Rome defeated Carthage in all three wars
Hannibal
Carthagenian general who tried to take Rome by surprise (by crossing the Alps with his army and elephants)
Cato
Senator of Rome between the 2nd and 3rd Punic Wars "Carthage must be destroyed "
Tiberius and Gaius Garcchus
Two brothers both elected as tribune. Wanted to reform Rome. Tiberius distributed land to poor farmers and ten years later Gaius reformed Rome even more and used public funds to buy grain to feed the poor
Julius Caesar
..., Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
Pompey
Roman general and statesman who quarrelled with Caesar and fled to Egypt where he was murdered
Ides of March
March 15th, the day Julius Caesar was assassinated.
Octavian (Augustus) Ceasar
Adopted son of Julius, came to power after Julius was assassinated, defeated Antony (former ally in his search for Julius murderers), built a stable gov
Pax Romana
("Roman Peace") long era of peace and safety in the Roman Empire
Caligula
Successor of Octavian, not good, little crazy, appointed horse as a consul
Nero
If you were a Roman Christian, who would have been the worst Empiror to live under?
Hardrian
Successor of Octavian, good ruler, codified Roman law, built wall across Britain to protect against non Romans.
Marcus Aurelius
161-180. Stoic philosopher. Wrote Meditations, a collection of his thoughts.
Cirus Maximus
Larges racecourse, chariots races and gladiators
Bread an circuses
The rich paying off the poor with food or distractions to keep them from rioting.
Messiah
Anointed king sent by God
Bishop
Person who presided over a priest, was a high church official responsible for everyone in his diocese
Pope
A bishop of Rome. began to claim authority over all other bishops
Hersey
Religious belief that is contrary to the official teachings of a church
Martyrs
People who suffered or died for their beliefs
Edict of Milan
Edict granted by the emperor Constantine. It granted freedom to worship to all citizens in the roman empire
Apostles
Jesus 12 followers. In greek it means " a person sent forth"
Paul
A leader who taught Christianity to the gentiles (non-Jews) all around the Mediterranean. He wrote letters and explained difficult doctrines. His letters became part of the new testament.
Aqueducts
Bridge like stone structures that carried water from the hills into roman cities.
Virgil
Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied
Ptolemy
Astronomer-mathematician who stated that the earth was the center of the universe
Pantheon
Domed temple that honors many Roman gods
Diocletian
Emperor who set out to restore order after the end of the pax romana. He divided the empire into two part. The eastern of himself and the west for Maximian
Constantine
Who was the first Christian emperor of the Roman world?
Huns
Nomadic people who migrated from central Asia, dislodged Germanic people and crossed into roman territory, eventually took over Rome itself
Visigoths
Invaders whoe defeated the roman army at adrianople
Attila
Leader of the huns, embarked on a savage campaign of conquest across much of Europe
Odacer
Germanic leader ousted the emperor in Rome. (476)
Alaric
Visigoth general overran Italy and plundered Rome in 410
Level 31