Level 302
Level 303

American Society in Transition


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urbanization
movement of people from rural areas to cities
demography
Study of human populations.
tenement
A building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety.
Political machine
An unofficial organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power.
political bosses
Influential politicians who demanded payoffs from business and helped the poor to try to win votes.
Immigration
The action of coming to live permanently in foreign country.
push and "pull" factors
The push factor involves a force which acts to drive people away from a place and the pull factor is what draws them to a new location.
new immigrants
Immigrants who came to the United States during and after the 1880s; most were from southern and eastern Europe.
ethnic ghettos
An ethnic enclave, or ethnic neighborhood is a neighborhood, district, or suburb which retains some cultural distinction.
nativists
U.S. citizens who opposed immigration because they were suspicious of immigrants and feared losing jobs to them.
Americanization
Refers to economic and military influence of the United States on Western Europe, but also as well to cultural loss of Europe. Reflects an extension of American values on European nations.
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
Frontier
As far as civilization had moved west; The beginning of Indian-held lands.
Great Plains
A vast grassland that extends through the central portion of North America, from the Mississippi River in the East to the Rocky Mountains in the West.
Klondike Gold Rush
a frenzy of gold rush immigration to and for gold prospecting, along the Klondike River near Dawson City, Yukon, Canada after gold was discovered there in the late 19th century.
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years.
Indian Wars
Term used to describe the several conflicts with Indians during the 1860s and 1870s as Americans began to encroach upon the Indian owned land instead of just passing through it on their way west.
Reservations
Areas of federal land set aside for American Indians.
Dawes Act
An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
American Indian Citizenship Act
law granted immediate U.S. citizenship to all Native American Indians born in the United States.
Political "Bosses"
Influential politicians who demanded payoffs from business and helped the poor to try to win votes.
Level 304