Level 315
Level 316

Founding Fathers

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George Washington
Unanimously chosen to be the leader of the Continental Army
John Adams
The younger cousin of Samuel Adams, a successful lawyer
Alexander Hamilton
Delegate to the Constitutional Convention and leader of the Federalists; first secretary of the treasury.
James Madison
father of the Constitution;4th President of the United States; member of the Continental Congress and rapporteur at the Constitutional Convention in 1776; helped frame the Bill of Rights (1751-1836)
Benjamin Franklin
American philosophe
Thomas Jefferson
drafted the Constitution; shared Locke's ideas
Samuel Adams
From Massachusetts, he was one of the leaders of the radical faction and was even more radical than his cousin
Thomas Paine
Author of Common Sense. Called for complete independence from Britian
Patrick Henry
A young member of the Virginia House of Burgesses Persuaded them to take action against the Stamp Act
Thomas Hooker
led a group of boston puritans into the valley and founded the colony of Hartford in 1636; created the first constitution in American history
James Oglethorpe
a British general, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, and founder of the colony of Georgia. As a social reformer, he hoped to resettle Britain's poor, especially those in debtors' prisons, in the New World.
William Penn
an English real estate entrepreneur, philosopher, early Quaker and founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. He was an early champion of democracy and relig…
a government ruled by elected representatives instead of a monarch
people being ruled
Sovereignty comes from the (_______).
The Constitutional Convention
Slavery, large vs. small states, economics, and the spirit of the '76 constitution were issues at (__).
state representatives
We accept the constitution because it was created by (_______).
True or False: Nero was assassinated
America overcame it's shortcomings in part because the founding fathers were willing to (_______).
need a social contract
Protecting the peace, individual liberty rights, and provision of public goods are all things which lead to the (_______).
Social Contract
An implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection. Theories of a social contract became popular in the 16th, 1…
US troops remain in South Korea today.
Who can exercise power?
Legislators cannot be executives, is an example of a (_______).
What actions are permissible?
Who decides?
How do individual actions interact?
What can be decided?
Who knows what?
Who benefits from choices?
Define: Rule by a single person based on divine right.
Define: Rule by a single person based on force.
Define: Rule by a small collective.
A political system where people are able to decide who their leader will be.
Literally 'without government', it can more generally mean a state of social confusion.
Articles of Confederation
This document was the first form of government for the United States. It set up a confederation and the federal government had very little power. All the power was in the hands of the states.
The Constitution
The Virgina Plan (proposed by the large states) and the New Jersey Plan (proposed by the small states) were merged to create a happy medium via (_______).
What was the capital of the colonies?
The Principal
The person who is represented by the agent.
The Agent
The person who is elected to represent the principal.
The Virgina Plan
Two chamber legislature based on state population.
The New Jersey Plan
single chamber with equal representation per state.
Great Compromise
Connecticut Plan, provided for bicameral legislature, equal representation in Senate, House of Representatives would be proportional to population size
Articles Versus Constitution
Checks and Balances
Not wanting any ONE branch to get too powerful, the Founding Fathers gave each branch certain ways to limit the power of the other two.
Amending the Constitution
2/3 vote of each house of Congress -> 3/4 state legislatures ratify (Used the most)
changing interpretations and norms
Informal changes to the constitution
Informal changes are (faster/slower) than formal changes.
Makes congressional pay raises effective during the term following their passage.
George Washington
collective action problems
problems that the Founding Fathers faced
(Most/few) of the Founders were from prominent families.
Study this
Checks and Balances
Declaration of Independence
This document stated that power came from the people (popular sovereignty) and listed the grievances (what we were mad about) and said that the United States was free from Great Britain
us constitution
set up a strong central government with checks and balances
John Jay
American delegate who signed Treaty of Paris; New York lawyer and diplomat who negotiated with Britain and Spain on behalf of the Confederation; he later became the first chief justice of the Supreme Court.
Bill of Rights
Recognized by William and Mary which limited the powers of the monarchy, prohibited Catholics from occupying he throne and guaranteed the role of Parliament in government
Constitutional Convention
meeting to revise the Articles of Confederation, but resulted in the writing of the Constitution, instead
Federalist Papers
Key element in the Federalist campaign for the Constitution. This was a series of highly persuasive essays written for a New York newspaper by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay. The 85 essays, l…
Level 317