Level 331
Level 332

Washington's & Adams' Presidency


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Jefferson's vision for U.S.
Believed average citizen could make decisions for nation, wanted to protect power of states and wanted U.S. to be an agrarian nation
Federal Judiciary Act, 1789
Established three levels of federal courts: supreme, circuit, and district
XYZ Affair, 1798
U.S. wanted to improve relations with France; France wanted a bribe of $250,000 and a guarantee of $12 million in loans before French foreign minister, Talleyrand would talk. XYZ was used to hide identies of those demaning bribe.
Neutrality Proclamation, 1791
Stated the U.S. would not take sides with any European countries at war.
Whiskey Tax, 1791
Part of Hamilton's economic plan; would use revenue to pay debt from Revolutionary War and incite rebellion to prove strength of national govt.
Washington's warning in Farewell Address, 1796
avoid alliances with foreign countries, political parties, and debt
Hamilton's Financial Plan
Pay national and state debts due to American Revolution, raise revenue, establish a national bank
Pinckney's Treaty, 1795
Spain recognized U.S. southern boundary at 31st parallel & allowed use of New Orelans Port
Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions, 1798/99
Sponsored by Jefferson & Madison; said Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional; state's rights established: could challenge federal govt.
Alien Act, 1798
Meant to crush Republican Party that immigrants joined; longer waiting time for citizenship and voting;allowed aliens to be deported quickly
Sedition Act, 1798
Prevented Americans from speaking or writing anything against the Federalist policies
Jay's Treaty, 1794
U.S. experienced violent protests to treaty that did not address impressment of sailors or improve trade with Great Britain
French Revolution, 1789
French wanted a govt. free of heavy taxes and class system; killed King Louis XVI; wanted U.S. to honor Treaty of Alliance; Federalists against; Rep. favored
Southern compromise to accept Hamilton's economic plan
Relocate capital in Washington D.C. (between Virginia and Maryland) and the southern states would agree to Hamilton's plans
Millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute
referred to XYZ Affair and bribe; Federalist Party wanted war with France for the insult
Election of 1796
Resulted in a president and vice president from opposing parties; Federalists: Adams/Pickney, Republicans: Jefferson/Burr
precedent
(n.) an example that may serve as a basis for imitation or later action. The Supreme Court ruling of Marbury vs Madison did just that
1789 expectations of government
stable economy, protection of citizens, improved trade
Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
rebellion by small farmers; GW led 13,000 federal troops to put down rebellion; first and only time a president has done so
resigned in 1793
Hamilton and Jefferson had different visions for nation; GW followed Hamilton's lead in foreign affairs, Jefferson resigned
U.S. population, 1790
Four million, most lived in rural areas and were farmers
Hamilton's vision for U.S.
Wealthy should have more power than average citizen; strong federal government; promote manufacturing and business
Loose construction
Means the federal government can do what is needed if it is not forbidden; based on "necessary and proper clause."
strict construction
Belief that the federal government should do only what the Constitution specifically states it may do
Federalist Party
A political party created in the 1790s that wanted to strengthen the federal government and promote industry and trade.
Democratic-Republic Party
A political party founded in the 1790s by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and other leaders who wanted to preserve the power of the state governments and limit the power of the federal government.
political parties
Groups that help elect people and shape politics and laws.
XYZ Affair
Adams sent US delegation to Paris to negotiate, three French ministers requested bribes to enter into negotiations, American delegates refused, "millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute", led to war calls, Adams resisted
Alien and Sedition Acts
authorized the president to deport any aliens considered dangerous and to detain any enemy aliens in a time of war and made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize either the president or Congress and imposed heavy penalties
Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
states had entered into a "compact" in forming the national government, and therefore if any act of the federal government broke the compact, a state could nullify the federal law
Alexander Hamilton
Delegate to the Constitutional Convention and leader of the Federalists; first secretary of the treasury.
John Adams
The younger cousin of Samuel Adams, a successful lawyer
france
epicenter of the enlightenment
The South
Americans in this region often supported placing limits on the power of the federal government.
Thomas Jefferson
drafted the Constitution; shared Locke's ideas
Tribute
A payment paid by the weaker country to the stronger to obtain a sense of security and peace.
rivalry
A competition between two or more groups. During the Cold War the U.S. and the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R) competed for world power.
resolution
a formal expression of opinion
dignity
self- worth and deserving of respect
When was Washington Inaugurated?
4/30/1789 in New York City
Why pick George Washington?
Tall, leader, no children
Why and How does George Washington set standards?
Be an example to future presidents, avoids being called "His Excellency/Highness"
What is the Federal Judiciary Act?
sets up courts and Supreme Court
How many justices are there?
6; 1 Supreme justice, 5 Associate justices
Henry Knox
Patriot who hauled captured cannons to Boston
Attorney General
Edmund Randolph
What were some Economic Problems?
encouraging business and industry, paying back war debts
Why must they pay back war debts?
To win respect from the other nations/their own people, to build good credit for loans in future
What was Hamilton's Financial Plan?
pay off war debts by raising taxes, build national bank
What was stopping Hamilton's Financial Plan?
Southerners already paid war debt, it wasn't in the constitution.
How did Hamilton win over these differences?
The Southerners could have the capital, the elastic clause
What is a tariff?
a tax on imported goods.
it encouraged the growth of American industries.
What did the tariff do, besides raise revenue?
What is a Strict Constitutionalist?
A person that follows the Constitution to a tee: if not in the constitution, it was void.
What is a Loose Constitutionalist?
A person that believes the Constitution can be interpreted many ways: use of the elastic clause a lot.
What was the Battle of Fallen Timbers?
A rebellion of the Native Americans against the American Settlement from 1790-1794
Little Turtle and Mad Anthony Wayne
Who were the leaders of the Battle of Fallen Timbers?
The Americans!!!!!!!
Who won the Battle of Fallen Timbers?
What was the Treaty of Greenville?
A treaty made in 1795 stopping the Battle of Fallen Timbers. The Natives gave up present day Ohio and Indiana
What was the Whisky Rebellion?
A rebellion led by Western Pennsylvania Farmers against the whisky tax.
French peasants overthrough their monarchy because of our example.
What did the French Revolution have to do with anything?
What happened after the French Revolution?
France declared war on all other monarchies. We remained neutral.
What was Jay's Treaty?
An agreement with Great Britains stating that the if the British leave the Ohio Valley and pay for the damages of the U.S. Ships, we wil remain neutral.
What was Pinckney's Treaty?
An agreement with Spain stating that if we are allowed to travel the Mississippi River and access New Orleans, we will remain neutral.
What does Washington say before he leaves office?
political parties divide a nation, perminent alliances with other countries are bad.
What is foreign policy?
relationships with other governments
What was the Federalist party?
Hamilton's political party - strong federal government, focus on manufacturing, alliance with Britain
What was the Democratic Republican party?
Jefferson's political party - limited government, focus on agriculture, alliance with France
1797
When did John Adams become president
Adams: 71 Jefferson: 68
What were the votes between Adams and Jefferson?
What started the XYZ affair?
France and England start to seize American ships; starts an "unofficial war" between America and France
What was the XYZ affair?
a 1797 French attempt to bribe the United States by demanding money before discussing French seizure of neutral American ships
What was the Alien and Sedition Act?
1793 law stating only white men who were Prodistant and from either English or English-controlled countries could become citizens.
The 14th Amendment: Civil Rights Amendment
Which Amendment would now prohibit the Alien and Sedition Acts?
What was the Nullification/ States Rights Act?
Created by Thomas Jefferson: The Sates have a right to declare laws unconstitutional.
Level 333