Level 335
Level 336

Agrarian Republic


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agrarian
The society acknowledges other means of livelihood and work habits but stresses the importance of agriculture and farming, and was the most common form of socio-economic organization for most of recorded human history.
industrial agriculture
Industrial agriculture refers to a process of mechanizing the growing, harvesting, and processing of food. Rather than having a multitude of small family farms producing a variety of healthful, wholesome foods, we have huge, multinatio…
Alexander Hamilton
Delegate to the Constitutional Convention and leader of the Federalists; first secretary of the treasury.
Thomas Jefferson
drafted the Constitution; shared Locke's ideas
George Washington Julian
One of the leading opponents of slavery. Free soil party candidate. Radical republican during the Civil War and reconstruction. He was one of the people who articulated what we call an agrarian philosophy. GW…
J. Hector St John de Crevecoeur
Crèvecoeur worked as a surveyor and trader and traveled extensively. He became a naturalized citizen of New York. The outbreak of the American Revolution and the desire to see his children's inheritance secured were…
Letters From An American Farmer
French-born colonial settler Michel Crèvecoeur reflects on what qualities are uniquely American and describes Americans as a novel mixture of European nationalities by drawing a contrast between European society, which he sees as characterize…
backwoods settlement culture
Backwoods pioneers in their own view lived beyond the settlements and clearly distinguished themselves from the inhabitants of longer-populated districts. They were associated with log cabins, the keeping of pigs, small close-knit kinship groups,…
Caribbean sugar plantation
The sugar cane plant was the main crop produced on the numerous plantations throughout the Caribbean through the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, as almost every island was covered with sugar plantations and sugar m…
diversified farm
The practice of producing a variety of crops or animals, or both, on one farm, as distinguished from specializing in a single commodity.
monoculture
Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop or plant species over a wide area and for a large number of consecutive years. It is widely used in modern industrial agricul…
agricultural treadmill
The Agricultural Treadmill characterised world agriculture between 1870 and 2000. During this time period farmers produced ever more food for ever more humans at ever declining prices, and farm income growth lagged behind income gr…
guano
Guano is the excrement of seabirds, cave-dwelling bats, pinnipeds, or birds in general. As a manure, guano is a highly effective fertilizer due to its exceptionally high content of nitrogen, phosphate, and potassium, three nutrients essential for plant growth.
3/5ths clause
It was a compromise between the northern states with the southern ones that decided that although slaves were not citizens, each one would count as 3/5 of a man for representation. It got Southern states to ratify the constitution.
Mexican-American War
1846 - 1848 - President Polk declared war on Mexico over the dispute of land in Texas. At the end, American ended up with 55% of Mexico's land.
Missouri Compromise
1850- Slavery could not extend to states above the 36, 30 line.
Compromise of 1850
Before the War, Gave North and South part of what they wanted. (1) California admitted as free state, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive s…
Henry Clay
Distinguished senator from Kentucky, who ran for president five times until his death in 1852. He was a strong supporter of the American System, a war hawk for the War of 1812, Speaker of…
Texas annexation
Texas wanted to join the US but it could not because it would throw off the balance of the Missouri Compromise. Tyler takes William Henry Harrison's seat. He is not a Whig, he …
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
populism and Farmers' Alliance
The Populist Party was formed in 1892 by members of the Farmer's Alliance. This party was designed to appeal to workers in all parts of the country. Populists favored a larger role of governmen…
Homestead Act
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years.
100th meridian
Line north to south from the Dakotas through west Texas. Lands west of this line were generally poor and marginal. Settlers rashly tried to farm here in the 1870's and met ruin.
crop-lien system
Similar to sharecropping — merchants loan food and supplies to farmers so they can farm; farmers have to pay them back with some of their crops. When harvests were bad, farmers got deeper and deeper in debt to merchants.
Sharecropping
a farmer giving part of their crops as rent for the land on which the crops are grown, instead of money.
Ignatius Donnelly
Donnelly was a populist who wrote Caesar's Column. The column discussed how the industrial society appears to be a "wretched failure" to "the great mass of mankind."
sub-treasury system
The sub-treasury system was an organization in which govt. funds would be placed in an independent treasury in Washington and in subtreasuries. This way no private banks would have the govt's money or nam…
Sugar Creek
located on the Sangamon river in central Illinois.
coinage of silver
Populism favored free coinage of silver.
Omaha Platform
Political agenda adopted by the populist party in 1892 at their Omaha, Nebraska convention. Called for unlimited coinage of silver (bimetallism), government regulation of railroads and industry, graduated income tax, and a number of election reforms.
Arcadia or Arcadian Ideal
Arcadia refers to a vision of pastoralism and harmony with nature. Arcadia is associated with bountiful natural splendor, harmony, and is often inhabited by shepherds. The concept also figures in Renaissance mythology.
George Inness, The Lackawanna Valley (1855)
This painting is the juxtaposition of the oncoming train with the swath of tree stumps. It implies that the recumbent, red-vested young man in the foreground is pondering the devastating impact of industrialization on the edenic American wilderness.
Winslow Homer, The Morning Bell (1871)
Labor outside the home was on the increase after the Civil War and signified the growing industrialization of the country. This engraving of mill workers is closely related to an earlier Homer oil painting origin…
Thomas Hovenden, Breaking Home Ties (1890)
The 1890s saw the decline of small family farms and the necessity of young sons leaving the land to make a living in the city or on what little was left of the frontier.…
Alexander McGillivray
Creek Chief, who signed the Treaty of New York in 1790, which ended the Oconee War and gave all Creek land east of the Oconee River to the state of Georgia.
Worcester v Georgia
case where the state of Georgia tried to remove the Cherokee Indians, but Congress said it was illegal to remove them off their own land
John Ross
Cherokee chief who went to court in Georgia to protect the Cherokees' right to own their own land when the government gave the land to new settlers.
Cherokee Nation
The Cherokee Nation is the largest of three Cherokee federally recognized tribes in the United States. It was established in the 20th century, and includes people descended from members of the old Cherokee Nation…
McCormick Reaper
1831 - Mechanized the harvest of grains, such as wheat, allowing farmers to cultivate larger plots. The McCormick Reaper fueled the large-scale establishment of commercial agriculture in the Midwest.
C--M--C
C-M-C (commodities transformed into money which is transformed back into commodities) is the direct form of circulation. In this case we sell commodities in order to buy more, and money acts as a kind of middle-man.
Wilson Flagg
Flagg would wake the countryside around New England's villages and write about the plants, birds and landscapes he observed. Observing New England's farm communities during the middle years of the nineteenth century, Flagg saw …
Edwin Nourse
Nourse dedicated his long career to an industrial revolution in the American countryside. Nourse accused farmers and economists of failing to understand the significance of agriculture in the complex society fast upon them. In Nour…
Liberty Hyde Bailey
Bailey represented an agrarianism that stood in the tradition of Thomas Jefferson. He had a vision of suffusing all higher education, including horticulture, with a spirit of public work and integrating "expert knowledge" in…
quarter section or 160 acres
A quarter section, often shortened to quarter, is an area of one-fourth of a square mile, or 160 acres (0.65 km2). It was a common size of a tract under Homestead Acts in the United States.
survey system
The Public Land Survey System (PLSS) is the surveying method used historically over the largest fraction of the United States to survey and spatially identify land parcels before designation of eventual ownership, particularly for rural, wild or undeveloped land.
Henry David Thoreau
Dr. King's theory of nonviolent civil disobedience was influenced by the writings of this man
Walden
Walden, by noted transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau, is a reflection upon simple living in natural surroundings. The work is part personal declaration of independence, social experiment, voyage of spiritual discovery, satire, and manual for self-relia…
Nate Shaw (Ned Cob)
Cobb became one of the most successful sharecroppers (or black men in all occupations) in the rural Jim Crow regulated county. Within a few years he owned his own mules, a truck, and a…
Cecilia Penifader
The daughter of Robert and Alice Penifader, and the protagonist of the story. Cecilia was a peasant, and her actions were exceptionally well documented in the courts of Brigstock. She amassed a substantial amoun…
Land Ordinance 1784
The Ordinance of 1784, drafted by Thomas Jefferson and passed by Congress, divided the territory into a handful of self-governing districts. It stipulated that each district could send one representative to Congress upon its attai…
Land Ordinance 1787
The Northwest Ordinance of 1787, the most important of the three acts, laid the basis for the government of the Northwest Territory and for the admission of its constituent parts as states into the Un…
Democrats
KPD - left
Whigs
a political party that opposed James II
tenancy
In the Middle Atlantic colonies, traditional estates in New York left almost no land available to settlers, forcing many to settle for tenancy. Tenancy, or renting and working property for the wealthy owners, sho…
IR-8
It's a rice plant that grows very short. The idea is that it is sturdy and it doesn't lodge. It was made to be harvested with a certain kind of machinery. By not putting…
J. Hector St John de Crevecoeur
frenchman who lived in colonies; settled on farm in New York until the Revolutionary War; wrote Letters from an American Farmer;
Letters From An American Famer
written by Crevecoeur in 1782; series of letters from a modestly prosperous Penn. farmer to a friend seeking a better understanding of American life; shaped by his experiences in New York as a farmer; r…
Whigs and Democrats
WHIGS (NORTH) & DEMOCRATS (SOUTH)
sharecropping and tenancy
institutionalized debt, debt used as weapon; did not own their land; grew crop but owed rent; landowner took parts of the crops and farmer would be in debt to merchant.
George Inness, The Lackawanna Valley, (1855)
infiltration of railroad in the pastoral country side; expansion of capitalism and industrialization.
1890
Break up of family as son moves to take up own farm or to city; but not a happy leaving, filled with dread; family seems failing--dark and dirty home; boy is fixed on the …
Worcester v Georgia
1832; federal case filed by Worcester who claimed that his family's removal was unlawful; Georgia law cannot be enforced on Native land; ruled in favor of Worcester; interactions between Native Americans and Georgia must be considered as international talks.
Ordinances of 1784 and 1787
called for the land west of Appalachians north of Ohio and east of Mississippi to be divided into seperate states; authored by Jefferson; land to be surveyed; against strong central government; congress to decide the legality of slavery.
green revolution
refers to a series of research and developement technology transfer initiatives; 40's-60's; agricultural productivity increased worldwide; created slums; small farmers lost land; food not efficiently circulated.
IR-8/ Dwarf Wheat
sturdy; made to be harvested with certain machinery; small stalks; less energy for stalks, more for the actual grain; higher yields of rice and wheat.
Marbury V. Madison
Supreme court case that set a precedent for judicial review by ruling that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional
John Marshall
A federalist appointed by president John Adams as chief justice of the supreme court; ruled on many cases that would give the federal government more power over time
Louisiana Territory
Monroe and Livingston purchased the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon for $15 million; doubled size of the US; helped farmers expand the US
Napoleon
Who lost the invasion of Russia
Embargo Act
act prohibiting trade with foreign nations; devastated New England colonies because trade stopped and ships rotted
Five Civilized Tribes
tribes of native Americans south of the Ohio (Cherokee, Chickasaws, Chocotaw, Creeks, Seminoles)
Pan-Indian military resistance movement
movement calling for the political and cultural unification of Indian tribes in the late 18th and early 19th centuries
Tecumseh
Shawnee leader who attempted to organize an indian confederacy to prevent the loss of Additional territory to American settlers.
William Henry Harrison
governor and military commander in the Indian Territory. He feared the growing strength of the Indian confederation.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle between Indians and US troops in which Harrison defeats Tecumseh
Tenskawatawa
nicknamed the "prophet"; was in charge of the tribe while Tecumseh was away and they were defeated
War Hawks
people who urged war with Britain
War of 1812
Great Britain vs. US, 1812 to 1814
James Madison
father of the Constitution;4th President of the United States; member of the Continental Congress and rapporteur at the Constitutional Convention in 1776; helped frame the Bill of Rights (1751-1836)
Dolly Madison
first lady during the war of 1812 that saved the portraits in the White House when they were under attack
Battle of New Orleans
Decisive American battle during the War of 1812; victory over Britain; battle fought two weeks after the signing of the treaty
Hartford Convention
meeting by Federalists dissatisfied with the war to draft a new constitution; resulted in seemingly traitorous Federalist party's collapse
nullification
The doctrine that a state can declare null and void a federal law that, in the state's opinion, violates the Constitution.
Treaty of Ghent
(December 24, 1814) Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commissio…
Election of 1816
won by Representative James Monroe which began the "era of Good feeling"
Era of Good Feeling
Period of 1817-1823 in which the disappearance of the Federalists enabled the Republicans to govern in a spirit of seemingly nonpartisan harmony
American System
was a plan that called for National Bank, a Proticative Tariff, and Internal Improvement
Second Bank of the United States
national bank chartered by Congress in 1816 with extensive regulatory powers over currency and credit
Monroe
5th president in 1816 that was president during the nonpartisan Era of Good Feeling
National Road
national/interstate project that connected Cumberland, Maryland to Vandalia, Illinois
Erie Canal
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to …
Rush-Bagot Treaty of 1817
treaty between US and Britain limiting naval armaments on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain
Transcontinental Treaty of 1819
Treaty between US and Spain in which Spain ceded Florida to US, surrendered all claims to the Pacific Northwest, and agreed to a boundary between Louisiana Purchase territory and Spanish SW
Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Written by President Monroe's Secretary of State John Adams. Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power w…
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State to Monroe
Panic of 1819
land speculation, bank runs
Level 337