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Great American Desert; "The Frontier"
The popular belief of those in the East that beyond the Mississippi there was only desert. However, over time, adventures proved the West's possibilities and it becomes the "frontier", full of opportunities.
What do you call the area to which Native Americans were moved, covering what is now Oklahoma, and parts of Kansas and Nebraska
Widespread Indian groups in the West that were dependent on buffalo and had no permanent settlements.
General Stephen Kearny
He tried to establish a territorial government in New Mexico out of only Anglo-Americans.
Hispanic residents of California.
Spanish speaking neighborhoods.
Indentured servants with conditions close to slavery.
foreign miners tax
Enacted by the California legislature in 1852 to exclude Chinese and Mexicans from gold mining.
Chinese communities based on their customs.
tongs; "tong wars"
Secret societies for Chinese. Rivals would war with each other.
Workingmen's Party of California; Denis Kearney
He took up the call of the attack on the Chinese which led to him obtaining a large amount of political power.
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
Denied Chinese immigration and prevented naturalization for ten years.
Homestead Act (1862)
Permitted settlers to buy 160 acres if they lived on the land for 5 years and improved it.
Timber Culture Act (1873)
Settlers received 160 more acres if they planted 40 trees.
Desert Land Act (1877)
Claimants can buy 640 acres for $1.25 an acre if they irrigate it within 3 years.
Timber and Stone Act (1878)
Land unfit for farming can be sold to loggers and miners.
Washoe District/Comstock Lode
Locations of gold/silver discoveries.
Black Hills, Dakota Territory
Prospectors came to the area, then the Homestake company dominated the field but ultimately the area became largely agricultural.
Driving cattle from the ranch along a trail to a railroad to be shipped to market/slaughterhouses in the east.
The open range cattle industry that stretched from Texas to Montana.
Flights between ranchers, farmers, cattlemen, and sheepherders over land which lead to loss of life and property.
Helen Hunt Jackson's Century of Dishonor (1881)
It chronicles the experience of Native Americans in the US, focusing on the injustices. She wrote this book in an attempt to change government i…
Rocky Mountain School; Albert Bierstadt
They brought paintings of the west to eastern people, creating a desire for them to see it. The painters took tours around the East and mid-western states.
Buffalo Bill Cody; Cody's Wild West Show
The most successful wild west show run by the former Pony Express rider and Indian fighter. He hired imitators, exploiting his own fame.
A famous sharpshooter who performed in wild west shows.
He wrote novels which showed characters wanting to escape the constraints of society, giving voice to the romantic vision of the frontier.
A successful artist who displayed the west as an alternative to the settled east.
who ran against the election as a 3rd part candidate?
Frederick Turns; The Turner Thesis
A man who authored a paper titled "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" which stated that the West stimulated individualism, nationalism, and democracy and that it had made Americans what they were.
A new reservation policy which divided up tribes and forced them into scattered locations to give the whites the best land.
Unauthorized Indian representatives chosen by whites.
Indian Peace Commission
Composed of soldiers and civilians charged with recommending a new Indian policy.
Bureau of Indian Affairs
In charge with administering the reservations the government established. It managed Indian matters.
Sand Creek Massacre
A band of Arrapaho and Cheyenne under Black Kettle went to Sand Creek for protection, as directed since they were friendly Indians, but Colonel Chivington, encouraged by the army commander, massacred them.
Unofficial violence by white vigilantes towards natives.
Crazy Horse & Sitting Bull
They led a Sioux rebellion and successfully surprised Custer, and killed every white man at Little Bighorn.
George A. Custer; Battle of Little Bighorn
When sent to force back the Sioux onto their reservation after they left and rebelled, his army was attacked and killed.
Nez Perce; Chief Joseph
A small peaceful tribe who hadn't signed a treaty. The government forced them to move to a reservation, causing some drunk younger boys to kill 4 whites out of anger. Chief Joseph and the t…
The Apache chieftain who raided the white settlers in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation.
Wovoka and the Ghost Dances
A prophet who caused a spiritual awakening. Ghost dances were performed and participants saw visions of the whites leaving and the buffalo returning.
In 1890, after killing Sitting Bull, the 7th Cavalry rounded up Sioux at this place. It was the site of a massacre of Native North Americans in which between 150 and 370 Sioux people …
Dawes Severalty Act (1887)
A law used to force Indians to assimilate by becoming landowners/farmers and no longer living on reservations. Weakened the power of the tribes.
Transcontinental Railroad; Promontory Point, Utah
A monumental achievement completed in 1869. Connected the west to the east and provided economic opportunity to the west.
Two inventions that changed the way people lived in Nebraska
Farming where crops are sold in nation and international markets for a profit.
Speculators, bankers, regional and local agents.
Old farmers from the previous generation.
Hamlin Garland, Jason Edwards (1891)
Showed the romanticized west was fading and how rural life was crushing the human spirit.
People living in North America. The Great Plains were home to the Plains Indians, who were mostly hunter-gatherers. Their beliefs and attitudes were based around their religion; therefore many ceremonies were held including Buffalo da…
Southwestern Hispanic societies
Hispanics have also lived continuously in the Southwest since near the end of the 16th century, with settlements in New Mexico that began in 1598, and which were transferred to the area of El P…
Homestead Act of 1862
stated that citizens could file an application and then claim 160 acre tracts of land west of the Mississippi River for usage and settling
A town that grew in mining areas where there were rushes. These usually didn't last because the gold usually ran out, or there was no gold at all.
The major long route north from Texas to Ablilene, Kansas, where cowboys drove herds of cattle to the railroads to be shipped back East for huge profits.
Rocky Mountain School
A group of painters of whom the best known were Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Moran. Paintings celebrated the new new West. Paintings emphasized ruggedness, the dramatic variety of the region and the awe toward…
Large shaggy-haired brown bison of North American plains. One of the biggest problems Indians on the Great Plains faced was the near annihilation (destruction) of these herds when settlers flooded into the region. Plains Ind…
Chinese Immigration Act of 1882
Banned Chinese immigration into the United States for ten years and barred Chinese already in the country from becoming naturalized citizens. Congress renewed law for another 10 years in 1892 and made it permanent in 1902.
Located in Nevada. The most valuable ore was silver first discovered in 1858 by Henry Comstock.
The Cattle Kingdom
Started by texas ranchers that lead a herd of 260,000 cows to Sedalia, Missouri. For years, Abilene, Kansas served as the railhead. Long drives became a romantic and mythological part of the west. Competition bet…
Wild West Shows
Made popular by P.T. Barnum. The first real performance opened in Omaha, Nebraska in 1883 by Buffalo Bill. Performances included Indian attacks to animal hunting. Actors included Indians and Annie Oakley. They died out sho…
The culture that idealized the life and traits of the cowboy, even though in reality it was not such a great job. The cowboy quickly became the most widely admired hero in America an…
Policy between the Indian tribes and the US gov; US government tried to solve the "Indian problem" ongoing relocation to reservations.
Battle of Little Big Horn (1876)
Battle between George A. Custer and 2,500 Indian warriors led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull. All 264 members of Custer's regiment were killed. Perhaps the most famous of all conflicts between whites and Indians.
Battle of Wounded Knee
Also known as The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek, it was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States. After the the Sioux surrendered they were rounded up and disar…
Dawes Act (1887)
Removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism.
Frederick Jackson Turner's Frontier Thesis
Historian Fredrick Jackson Turner in 1893 argued in his paper that the end of the "frontier" also marked the end of the most democratizing force in America that had created a unique American identity…
A policy in which a nation forces or encourages a subject people to adopt its institutions and customs.
Areas of federal land set aside for American Indians.
A group who undertakes law enforcement without legal authority. Boomtowns attracted outlaws and criminals. When this situation got out of hand people began to enforce their own laws through vigilante communities
boarding schools (for Native Americans)
Indian children were take away from their families and put into these schools ran by whites. The whites hoped that by attending this school these Indian children would be educated and abandon tribal ways…
The leader of the Nez Perce who fled with his tribe to Canada instead of being forced onto a reservation. However, US troops came and fought and brought them back down to reservations. (1840-1904)
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
Dawes Severalty Act
1887 act that provided for the gradual elimination of tribal ownership of land and the allotment of tracts to individual owners. 160 acres was provided to the head of a family, 80 for a si…
Frederick Jackson Turner
A historian who delivered a paper titled "The Significance of the Frontier in American History" to the American Historical Association. He argued that the end of the "frontier" also marked the end of on…
Indians who were without tribes because they had voluntarily left them. The were at the bottom level of the Spanish caste system in the Southwest.
George A. Custer
Four years after the Sand Creek massacre a band of Arapaho and Cheyenne under Chief Black Kettle were captured on the Washita River, near the Texas border, by this U.S. army colonel. Under his comm…
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years.
This battle took place in southern Montana in 1876. Sioux people had already left their reservation in 1875 and then when officials ordered them to return Sioux warriors gathered under Crazy Horse and Sitting B…
The name for the moving of cattle across the plains to the railroad terminals.
(in Latin America) A man of mixed race
The historian Frederick Jackson Turner argued that the frontier was the key factor in the development of American democracy and institutions.
Taos Indian Rebellion
When the U.S. aquired New Mexico, there was fear among the Hispanic and Indian populations that the AMericans would confiscate their land and threaten their societies. A group of Indians rebelled in this event…
In Texas, many Mexican landowners were losing their land after the U.S. annexed it. Mexican resentments led to this main raiding a jail in Brownsville and freeing all the Mexican prisoners. He continued to ha…
Chinese secret societies. Some of these were violent criminal organizations involved in the opium trade and prostitution. Few people knew they existed, except when rival tongs engaged in violent conflict.
As anti-Chinese sentiment emerged, these clubs were started. They sought bans on employing Chinese and organized boycotts of products made with Chinese labor. Some of them attacked Chinese workers and set on fire factories which employed Chinese workers.
Workingmen's Party of California
A political party started by Denis Kearney, an Irish immigrant. It gained significant power in CA largely as a result of its basis of hostility towards the Chinese.
Timber Culture Act
Act passed in 1873 which permitted homesteaders to receive grants of 160 additional acres of land if they planted 40 acres of trees.
Desert Land Act
Act passed in 1877 that provided that people could buy 640 acres at $1.25 an acre provided that they irrigated part of it within three years.
Timber and Stone Act
stated that unoccupied, surveyed land, mainly valuable for timber or stone, but not agriculture, could be purchased in 160 acre tracts for $2.50/acre in Washington, Oregon, California, and Nevada
First state to guarantee women suffrage
Indian Peace Commision
The commission established by Congress which consisted of soldiers and civilians to recommend a new and permanent Indian policy. They recommended replacing the concentration policy with a plan to move all the Plains Indians …
The point at which the two lines of the transcontinental railroad joined in 1869. It's in Utah.