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father of the Constitution;4th President of the United States; member of the Continental Congress and rapporteur at the Constitutional Convention in 1776; helped frame the Bill of Rights (1751-1836)
War of 1812
Great Britain vs. US, 1812 to 1814
Impressment of Sailors
when sailors were kidnapped and pressed into service in the British Royal Navy
Treaty of Ghent
(December 24, 1814) Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commissio…
Madison - War of 1812
City of Washington captured and burned by British...What President and which war?
Francis Scott Key
witnessed the bomdarment
Who was the president when the Monroe Doctrine was passed?
1823 - Written by President Monroe's Secretary of State John Adams. Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power w…
1850- Slavery could not extend to states above the 36, 30 line.
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
John Quincy Adams
Secretary of State to Monroe
Adams greatly redeemed himself in the eyes of history
He focused on the antislavery movement, and even defended the Amastad Slaves to the Supreme Court.
President from (1829-1833) and (1833-1837), Indian removal act, nullification crisis, Old Hickory," first southern/ western president," President for the common man, spoils system, trail of tears,
Trail of Tears
(1838-39) an 800-mile forced march made by the Cherokee from their homeland in Georgia to Indian Territory; resulted in the deaths of almost one-fourth of the Cherokee people
Indian Removal Act
Under Andrew Jackson's presidency; (1830) a congressional act that authorized the removal of Native Americans who lived east of the Mississippi River
Battle of New Orleans
Decisive American battle during the War of 1812; victory over Britain; battle fought two weeks after the signing of the treaty
Some praise his strength and audacity; others see him as vengeful and self-obsessed.
King Andrew Jackson
Famous Political Cartoon of President
Adams - Onis Treaty
Spain ceded Florida to the United States and gave up its claims to the Oregon Territory
James Madison (1809-1817)
4th president, defeated Federalist candidate Charles C. Pinckney 122 electoral votes to 47.
What was the population of the U.S. in 1810?
John Jacob Astor
Established a fur trading post near the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon.
What was the National, or Cumberland, Road?
Beginning construction in 1811, it was a main route used by settlers migrating west during the first half of the 1800s. Western farmers used the road to trade with the East.
territory in western United States purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million
Madison's second term (1812)
defeated Mayor De Witt Clinton of New York City by an electoral vote margin of 128 to 89.
1816, Indiana becomes the 19th state.
James Monroe (1817-1825)
5th president, won 183 electoral votes to 34 for Senator Rufus King of New York, years in office known as "Era of Good Feelings".
Rush-Bagot Agreement (1817)
U.S. and Britain promise to keep warships out of the Great Lakes and not to build forts along the boundary between the U.S. and Canada.
1817, Mississippi becomes the 20th state.
Treaty of 1818
Signed by U.S. and Britain, set the boundary between the U.S. and Canada at the 49th parallel and confirmed American fishing rights off the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador, and opened the Oregon Countr…
1818, Congress admits Illinois to the Union as the 21st state.
Seminole Indians from Spanish Florida cross over into Georgia and attack American settlers. Florida also became a hiding place for runaway slaves. General Jackson chased Indians into Florida while also capturing several forts. Spain s…
1819, Alabama becomes the 22nd state.
What was the population of the U.S. in 1820?
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Said that (1) Missouri would be admitted to the Union as a slave state (2) Maine would become a free state (3) land in the Louisiana Territory north of the 36°30' line (except Missouri) would be closed to slavery.
How many senators does Missouri and Maine send to Washington?
2 senators (to make laws that might favor one section of the country over another.
Boston, Massachusetts (1821)
Where was the first public high school established?
led American settlers into Texas, which was Mexican territory. Within 10 years, 20,000 Americans lived in Texas.
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
We should consider any attempt [by European powers] to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety.
By raising tariff rates.
How did Congress protect factory owners in the Northeast from foreign competition?
John Quincy Adams (1825-1829)
Election of 1824
serval candidate ran for President
Two political groups
Democratic-Republican Party split into two groups- Angry Jackson followers formed the Democratic Party.
Who helped to complete the Erie Canal?
Governor De Witt Clinton of New York.
A canal between the New York cities of Albany and Buffalo, completed in 1825. The canal, considered a marvel of the modern world at the time, allowed western farmers to ship surplus crops to …
What were the benefits of the Erie Canal?
It became an important route for settlers traveling west, reducing freight costs between East and West, and made New York City the busiest shipping and trading center in the United States.
How do the Northeast feel on tariffs?
Northeast favored high tariffs on imported goods. Tariffs raised prices of manufactured goods from Great Britain and other countries. Enabled American manufacturers to sell more products to people in the U.S.
How do the Southeast feel on tariffs?
Southerners opposed the tariff because they no longer could buy cheaper foreign goods.
Tariff of Abominations
1828 - Also called Tariff of 1828, it raised the tariff on imported manufactured goods. The tariff protected the North but harmed the South; South said that the tariff was economically discriminatory and unconstitutional bec…
Andrew Jackson (1829-1837)
7th president. Recieved 178 electoral votes to only 83 for President John Quincy Adams. 1st President from the West.
How was Andrew Jackson viewed as a President?
A strong and effective leader who represented the common people. Idea of government was "Let the people rule!"
Built by Peter Cooper in 1830, it was the 1st successful steam locomotive in America.
On the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
Where did the "Tom Thumb" trial run take place?
Webster-Hayne debate (1830)
Centered on the issues of states' rights and nullification and brought attention to the political differences between the North and South.
Who represented the North in the Webster-Hayne debate?
Daniel Webster - argued that if each state could nullify laws of the federal government, then the Union would break away. Only the Supreme Court could declare laws unconstitutional.
Who represented the South in the Webster-Hayne debate?
Robert Hayne - argued that a state had the right to nullify any law that it decided was unconstitutional and that the South thus had the right to nullify the tariff because it favored the North over the South.
William Lloyd Garrison
published articles saying slavery is bad, from North
Who invented the reaper (1831)?
Cyrus McCormick - it sharply raised grain production in the Midwest.
Who is known as the "Great Compromiser"?
Henry Clay- suggested that import duties be gradually lowered over the next 10 years, leading to South Carolina agreeing to the Compromise Tariff in 1833.
Jackson and the Bank (1832)
Jackson vetoed the bill that would've renewed the charter of the Second Bank of the United States. It put an end to the U.S. Bank. Jackson felt that the Bank gave the industrial East control over money and credit.
Election of 1832
Jackson elected for second term, defeating Henry Clay 218 electoral votes to 49. Election of 1832 marked the first time that presidential candidates were chosen by delegates attending national conventions.
Texas Independence (1836)
Americans settlers in Texas declare their independence form Mexico.
General Santa Anna
Who led Mexican troops into Texas and captured the "Alamo"?
General Sam Houston
Who defeated the Mexican Army at the Battle of San Jacinto?
Why was Texas turned down as a state by Congress?
Northerners did not want to admit another slave state to the Union Many Americans were afraid that the annexation of Texas would lead to war with Mexico.
1836, Arkansas becomes the 25th state.
Jackson and Indians (1837)
Jackson forced Indians who lived in the East to move west of the Mississippi River. Thousands of Indians cheated out of their land died during the forced westward migration. Some tribes fought the government's "removal policy".