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some Americans who tried to resist the changes in their lives did so by living in rural utopian communities.
Purpose of Utopian Communities
the common purposes of these was to foster a cooperative environment as an antidote to the vicious market economy, with members experimenting with non-traditional roles in work, family, and gender, thereby restoring traditional and social cohesion
This religious group settled in Utah.
An experiment in Utopian socialism, it lasted for six years (1841-1847) in New Roxbury, Massachusetts.
A philosophy pioneered by Ralph Waldo Emerson in the 1830's and 1840's, in which each person has direct communication with God and Nature, and there is no need for organized churches. It incorporated the i…
California Gold Rush Significance
A larger stream of migrants than Mormons or the overlanders following the Oregon Trail followed the 1848 discovery of gold in sparsely populated California Territory, which the US had wrested from Mexico through war. Hund…
Horace Mann and his innovations
The main public education pioneer, who helped establish a minimum school year, formal teacher training, and a more secular (less religious) advocated free, state-sponsored education
Role of public school in US republic
Mann thought, would be crucial to the success of the republic because they would take the children of strangers (immigrants and rural migrants) and give them shared values, making them good citizens with US values
things workers dreaded
they dreaded injury, layoffs during hard times, illness, competition from immigrants and slaves, old age, and in case of women, desertion and widowhood. Few women's jobs paid enough to support a family, so women fe…
changes in women
Men dominated wives and children, while middle an upper class homes became an idealized "women's sphere." For example, English common law gave husbands absolute authority over their family. Men owned their wives' personal property…
changes in families
As urban families in the 19th century market economy began to lose their role as producers, the results was sweeping change in the household economy as men increasingly worked for wages, outside the home…
When people are treated the same and get the same amount of money, rights, etc.
de Tocqueville's views of Equality
de Tocqueville: characterized the US as primarily a place of equality, and opportunity for white males. He believed that the US was more egalitarian than Europe due to its geographic mobility and fluid social or…
Other's views of Equality
the US was becoming more stratified, with wealth becoming more concentrated in the hands of a relative few. A New York newspaper publisher, Moses Yale Beach, believed that a new aristocracy based on wealth and power was forming
European immigrants (number who came and % foreign born in 1860)
5 million arrive 1820-1860. 15% of US whites were foreign-born in 1860
Where they came from (main nations)
North and Western Europe. Ireland was leading source 1820-1860
Why they came
(prior to Civil War) to escape famine, European wars and revolutions, religious persecution, and poverty, and to seek jobs in the US
Where most settled
most settled in cities, where they often formed ethnic neighborhoods
A disastrous loss to the _______ ends the Second Empire
often settled in Northeast coastal cities because they were poor. Native-born hated them because most were Catholic. Most were young, female, and from rural counties
Most in the Southwest, which the US took over. Viewing them as non-white, native-born Americans took their land, but Hispanics like Tejanos retained their culture
Status of free blacks, especially discrimination
in North their numbers rose, and they formed religious, political and self-help organization. A number of Northern states did not let them vote, some Middle West states put legal restriction on them, they were excl…
Briefly compare North and South (especially differences)
North had more cities, immigrants, factories, better-developed transportation (railroad), higher population density, a less personal and evangelical religion than did the South
among antebellum Southern Whites: it was a positive good justified by Bible, economics, property rights and science
their belief that slavery was a benefit to blacks, whom owners treated in a paternal, fatherly way
Yeoman farmers' importance and comparison with planters
those individualistic white small farm owners held no slaves; though more numerous than planters, Yeoman did not have much influence in South
Extent of slave ownership among Southern Whites
a large majority (3/4 in 1860) owned no slaves
Stereotype of slave owners vs. reality
only 12% of slave owners owned more than 20 slaves; most lived in comfortable farm homes not huge mansions
Influence of South White women on their men
was small; women raised to be subordinate to their husbands, that is defer to (follow) their men's wishes, (most played "the ostrich game,: pretending they didn't see husband's sexual activities among slave women)
enough to sustain life but plain, monotonous, nutritionally deficient
plain, coarse, 1-2 changes per season. Shoes often wait until winter
one room cabins that 2 families often shared, causing spread of disease
from sunup to sundown, 6-7 days a week, even for pregnant, young, and old
The worst evil of slavery was
not the physical cruelty but the nature of slavery: the coercion, lack of freedom, being owned by another with no hope of improvement
brief comparison of slavery in US and elsewhere
less physical cruelty in US, where slaves of freedom, being owned by another with no hope of improvement
a sense of distinctiveness and pride, based in large part on the influence of Africa
Influence of Africa/role of resistance
(clothing, music, dance, religion) played a major role in their resistance to white oppression
White and black styles of religion
differed. Whites preached to black to obey thy masters, don't seal, etc, while black Christianity emphasized that God or Jesus will end their bondage
Evidence of family separation
union army statistics showed 25% of men over 40 separated from wives
United States slave and insurrectionist who in 1831 led a rebellion of slaves in Virginia
Denmark Vesey plot
South Carolina rebellion foiled by informer; many hanged
Most black slave resistance
action like breaking tools, stealing food, slowing down work pace
Due to slave-state laws, many white males spent time in groups on horseback checking slave movements to prevent runaways and rebellions (unfree blacks called them "patrollers")
How planters had influence beyond their numbers
they had most of the wealth and political offices, plus newspaper editors, lawyers, and preachers depended on them
What triggered Southern cotton boom?
the huge appetite of English textile mills cause a steep rise in Southern cotton production. By the 1850s some 70% of British cotton imports were from the South. Of course, Eli Whitney's cotton gin…
Interregional slave trade
The international slave trade into the US officially ended in 1808. The Upper South (states like Virginia) had a surplus of slaves who had worked in tobacco, rice and indigo. Demand for slaves spread s…
Link between slave labor and US economic growth in 19th century
Economic historian Douglass C. North found that the period 1818-1839 were critical year--the beginning of acceleration in the US economy's growth, as well as years when US industrialization began and a period of westward expans…
Role of blacks in abolition movement
they were vital because they were inspiring lecturers, funded Garrison's newspaper, and ran most of the underground railroad
white abolitionists tended to hog the speaking positions, and many were ambivalent about racial equality and hiring blacks in their businesses
Dangers white abolitionists face
losing job, assault or death because other whites often viewed them as dangerous radicals (white mob killed abolitionist Elijah Lovejoy in Alton, IL)
Who first advocated immediate abolition
Who wanted slavery ended prior to 1830
the first (and only) whites were Quakers; also free blacks
William Lloyd Garrison
published articles saying slavery is bad, from North
One of the most prominent african american figures in the abolitionist movement, escaped from slavery in maryland. He was a great thinker and speaker. Published his own antislavery newspaper called the north star and w…
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women
where Congress ignores things until it goes away
Changes in our views of slavery tell us
Americans including historians have changed their attitude about race and equality. In 1920s historians (white) thought slavery was paternalistic and mild. Today historians (black and white) view slavery as cruel-profit driven institution
Why generalizing about slavery is hard
historical records remain, but most are written by whites, the ex-slave narratives recorded years after slavery ended, and slavery covered a vast period of time (over a century) and space
Why and how treatment of slaves varied
It ranged from paternalism of some to sadistic cruelty of others partly because of masters, partly because harsh laws ignored during some times, because indirect controls and incentives could sometimes take the place of the whip, etc.
American Anti-slavery Society
Formed in 1833, a major abolitionist movement in the North.
Splits within the abolition movement
between immediatists (AASS) and gradualists (A&FAS that is, the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society). There was also split between those using "moral suasion" to end slavery (including Garrison) and those wanting to work through the political system (like Birney)
the system in which Africans were to be treated as lifelong laborers, never to be set free like white indentured servants
a thorny issue
arose each time the US expanded in 1840's and 1850's: Should new territories, states be free or slave?
Mexican War- causes and results
causes- theory and practice of manifest destiny, US annexation of Texas, Southern desire to have more land for slave states, Polk's deceitful handling of the contested Texas border with Mexico. Results- thousands of US…
a treaty which settled a long dispute between America and Britain, over Britain hogging Oregon Territory
Slave Power Conspiracy
Northern fear that slave-holding oligarchy intended to dominate all of US, as evidenced by gag rule, Mexican War, Dred Scott Case, and Fugitive Slave Law
1846- all the land captured from Mexico will be free, southern states vote it down
Most Northern whites were...
anti-slavery and racist. That is, they did not wish slavery to expand into the territories, but they did not believe in black-white equality or wish contact with African Americans.
Let the people decide on whether slavery should be allowed in territories through voting.
Compromise of 1850-5 chief provisions (including Fugitive Slave Act) and its effects
California admitted as a free state, pro-slavery Texas reduced in exchange for money, Utah and NM territories would use popular sovereignty to decide slavery issue, slave trade prohibited in DC, and stringent (tougher) Fugitive S…
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Popular book by Harriet Beecher Stowe focusing on the negatives of slavery.
1830, Harriet Tubman, a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
led many slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad
Illinois Democrat, beat Lincoln in Senate race but lost to him in 1860 presidential election; main advocate (but not creator) of popular sovereignty; author of Kansas-Nebraska Bill; his Freeport Doctrine
Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so
Kansas-Nebraska Bill, including Douglass's motive for introducing it
organized Kansas and Nebraska territories using popular sovereignty. Douglas introduced the bill so Chicago (in his district) would benefit from railroad through the new land.
Results of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill
It repealed the Missouri Compromise, led to Bleeding Kansas, finished off the Whig Party, gave birth to Republican Party and damaged Northern Democrats
Republican Party, including its core values and how it broadened its appeal
led by Lincoln, wanted to stop slavery from entering western territories (its core value) but broadened its appeal by seeking federal government promotion of Western economic growth through tariffs, internal improvements (like canals) land gr…
(1856) a series of violent fights between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas who had moved to Kansas to try to influence the decision of whether or not Kansas would a slave state or a free state.
Drafted by pro-slavery government that stated that if citizens voted for no slavery, the rights of slaveholders in the territory would be protected. Buchanan supported this, while Douglas and others in the Senate opposed…
Dred Scott Case
Supreme Court case which ruled that slaves are not citizens but are property, affirmed that property cannot be interfered with by Congress, slaves do not become free if they travel to free territories or sta…
John Brown's actions in Kansas
his followers killed a group of pro-slavery settlers in Kansas after the sack of Lawrence
John Brown and his followers staged a raid on a federal arsenal in Virginia. He wanted to arm slaves to overthrow the whites and create a free black state. They were then captured and hanged for treason.
Lincoln (Republican) got majority of nation's electoral votes though he won only 40% was a plurality (more than any other candidate); Douglass, Northern Democrat, got many Northern popular votes but few electoral votes; Breckenridge, Sout…
This was an unsuccessful effort to avert the Civil War during the winter of 1860-1861. Senator John J. Crittenden, a Kentucky Whig and disciple of Henry Clay, proposed six constitutional amendments and four resolutions.…
The "Battle" that started the war. When South Carolina seceded from the Union on December 20, 1860, United States Maj. Robert Anderson and his force of 85 soldiers were positioned at Fort Moultrie near…
Why North went to war?
The North went to war against the seceding South in 1861 primarily to preserve the Union, not to abolish slavery
Southern and Northern (dis)advantages
Union had many more people, railroad miles, and industry, but Confederacy had the single best general and had shorter supply lines because it was on the defensive
Southern and Northern war strategies
South remains on defensive until North tires of war. North sought to squeeze South via Anaconda Plan (blockade coast and later capture Mississippi River)
First Bull Run
first major battle; South won, showing war would not be over soon
April 6-7, 1862- Major Union Victory in the West. Grant wins due to the reinforcements from Don Carlos Buell.
Jefferson Davis and Abraham Lincoln
Both suspended write of habeas corpus and used material law against their political foes, centralized power through measures like the draft, avoided saying slavery was war's cause, but Lincoln was much more popular
September 17th, 1862. Bloodiest single day in U.S. history. It is a Union Victory.
War transform South in 2 ways
South had to centralize and industrialize, and there was widespread human suffering
New Responsibilities for Women
In North, nursing and volunteer work, some factory labor, and farm work (with aid of machinery); in South, women worked in offices and supervised farms and plantations
Why it was called "rich man's war"
Confederates exempted anyone supervising at least 20 slaves, prosperous men in both sections could hire a substitute, and Northerners could pay a commutation fee
Impact of war on business and people
some Northern businesses and managers grew rich (some though making "shoddy" goods) while others made enormous sacrifices as soldiers, volunteers
Why the transcontinental railroad was approved?
since Southern legislators were gone, there was no longer a dispute over its route
Impact of Civil War on economy
it devastated the South's fields factories, railroads; overall it slowed pace of Northern industrialization but stimulated sectors like railroads, manufacturing
Lincoln's plan for gradual emancipation
pay back any state purchasing slaves, who would then be sent out of the country, perhaps to South America or Africa. No state participated.
Gave Union power to seize goods, including slaves, and used in Confederate war effort
Lincoln's reply to Horace Greely
Whatever he did about slavery was dependent on its role in his number one goal--to save the Union
Went into effect on 1/1/1863; ends slavery in rebelling states/areas of the Confederacy and turns the way into a war against slavery.
How Lincoln's policy on slavery was complex?
He believed slavery was wrong but doubted that he had the power to end it. He backed gradual emancipation for a while did not Thirteenth Amendment
an 1865 amendment to the United States Constitution that bans slavery throughout the nation
Black role in Union Army
was important. They made up 10% of Union military, and their presence helped prevent foreign recognition of (and aid to) Confederacy, but for the most part pad less than white soldiers of equal ann: …
Massachusetts 54th Regiment
The most famous black fighting union, whose brave performance at Fort Wagner helped persuade Lincoln to enlist more black soldiers
In May and June of 1863, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's armies converged on Vicksburg, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after prolo…
July 1st-3rd, 1863. Major turning point of the war. It is a Union Victory, and the South retreats from the North.
North and South anti-war movement
Anti-war sentiment grew in both sections during the final 2 years of the war, but it was less severe in North. In South there were draft evaders, deserters, food riots, and governors in 2 st…
This Ohio Democrat in US Congress was the leading critic of Lincoln and the war. His criticism led the military to arrest him for treason, but Lincoln wisely exiled him to the South rather …
a vocal faction of Democrats located in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. Also called Peace Democrats
New York draft riot
The most violent event in a wave of anti-war Northern sentiment (riots in 7 states), resulting in 74 deaths. It was fueled by anger of poorer Northerners, especially the Irish, who resented the ways …
Why things looked bleak in 1864?
Many in North were war-weary because the conflict did not appear to have an end. The Confederates kept fighting. Lincoln privately said that he feared he would lose to the peace Democrat McClelland, who m…
King Cotton diplomacy
Confederate belief that European (especially British) dependence on Southern cotton would cause these nations to aid the Confederacy. This event did not happen because Britain had a cotton surplus when war broke out and found other sources of cotton
The Union and the British nearly came to war when a Union gunboat stopped a British mail boat in the Atlantic and seized Confederate diplomats. But Lincoln quietly released the Confederates, diffusing the situation
Famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant
Costs and effects of Civil War
It cost $20 billion in dollars back then. Today's value would be half a trillion dollars. (It was 5 times the total of all federal spending from 1787-1861!) There were 1 million casualties …