Level 398
Level 399

Union in Crisis


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Compromise of 1850
Before the War, Gave North and South part of what they wanted. (1) California admitted as free state, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive s…
Fugitive Slave Act
Escaped slaves must be returned to masters (part of Compromise of 1850)
Stephen A. Douglas
Illinois Senator. Proposed to divide Nebraska Territory into two regions - Nebraska and Kansas. Declared popular sovereignty for both regions. Both regions above 36 30' line of Missouri Compromise of 1820. If Kansas-Nebraska Act…
Popular Sovereignty
Let the people decide on whether slavery should be allowed in territories through voting.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Dred Scott Decision
A Missouri slave sued for his freedom, claiming that his four year stay in the northern portion of the Louisiana Territory made free land by the Missouri Compromise had made him a free man.…
James Buchanan
15th President of the United States
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Lincoln-Douglas Debates
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party in the South was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a numbe…
Jefferson Davis
Confederate President
Confederate States of America
After 4 days of the election results, SC voted to secede from the Union. 6 more states in the next 6 weeks seceded. They formed in February 1861 the CSA with Jefferson Davis as President.
Fort Sumter
The "Battle" that started the war. When South Carolina seceded from the Union on December 20, 1860, United States Maj. Robert Anderson and his force of 85 soldiers were positioned at Fort Moultrie near…
Robert E. Lee
Was torn by the decision to support the Union join the Confederacy. He decided to join the confederacy because he didnt want to fight against his birthplace, Virginia, which had seceded. He fought in…
Battle of Bull Run
1861, 1st major battle, proved war was going to be long and costly. Confederates won.
Ulysses S. Grant
Commander of the Army of the Potomac (Union Army) from 1864-1865, had fought successfully in the West prior
Battle of Shiloh
Bloody Civil War battle on the Tennessee- Mississippi border that resulted in the deaths of more than 23,000 soldiers and ended in a marginal Union victory
Battle of Antietam
Landmark battle in the Civil War that essentially ended in a draw but demonstrated the powess of the Union army, forestalling the foreign intervention and giving Lincoln the "victory" he needed to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation
Went into effect on 1/1/1863; ends slavery in rebelling states/areas of the Confederacy and turns the way into a war against slavery.
Battle of Chancellorsville
The Union, led by General Hooker, was defeated by the Confederacy led by Robert E. Lee. During the battle General Thomas Stonewall Jackson was accidentally wounded here by one of his own men, and later died.
Battle of Gettysburg
Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that ended in Union victory, spelling doom for the Confederacy, which never again managed to invade the North. Site of General George Pickett's daring but doomed charge on the Northern lines.
Thirteenth Amendment
an 1865 amendment to the United States Constitution that bans slavery throughout the nation
Reconstruction
rebuilding of the South after the Civil War
contract
legal agreement
Ku Klux Klan
(A grassroots vigilante movement) Organized in Tennessee in 1866, secret society organized after the Civil War to reassert white supremacy by means of violence
Civil Rights Act of 1866
was the first United States federal law to define US citizenship and affirmed that all citizens were equally protected by the law.[1] It was mainly intended to protect the civil rights of African-Americans, in…
14th Amendment
Made former slaves citizens
15th Amendment
Provided suffrage for Black males
scalawag
white Southerner who supported the Republicans during Reconstruction, A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
carpetbagger
uncomplimentary nick-name for a northerner who went to the South after the Civil War, A derogatory term applied to Northerners who migrated south during the Reconstruction to take advantage of opportunities to advance their…
utilize
make use of
Prejudice
Racism implies prejudice. Is based on negative feelings and stereotypes rather than reason.
Sharecropping
a farmer giving part of their crops as rent for the land on which the crops are grown, instead of money.
tenet farming
system of farming in which farmers rented their land from the
Liberal Republicans
political party of those who broke with the Republican party over
Wilmot Proviso
1846- all the land captured from Mexico will be free, southern states vote it down
Free-Soil Party
Made up of antislavery advocates from all political parties. Slogan was "Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men." Held some of the same beliefs as Old Whigs (eg American System). Nominated van B…
Secede
To formally withdraw from the union
Personal Liberty Laws
pre-Civil War laws passed by Northern state governments to counteract the provisions of the Fugitive Slave Acts and to protect escaped slaves and free blacks settled in the North, by giving them the right to a jury trial.
Underground railroad
1830, Harriet Tubman, a system that helped enslaved African Americans follow a network of escape routes out of the South to freedom in the North
Harriet Tubman
led many slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad
Harriet Beecher Stowe
author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
John Brown
Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia.
Bleeding Kansas
(1856) a series of violent fights between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas who had moved to Kansas to try to influence the decision of whether or not Kansas would a slave state or a free state.
Know-Nothings
A fourth party that joined in the election of 1860.
Republican Party
Due to the emancipation Proclamation and Reconstruction amendments, African Americans were loyal to
Dred Scott
He was a slave who was taken to free territory. Scott sued for his freedom and the Supreme Court declared that slaves are property, not people.
Roger B. Taney
Chief justice of Supreme Court that ruled against Scott
Stephan A. Douglas
An Illinois politician, rival to Lincoln, who supported Kansas-Nebraska Act
Harper's Ferry
John Brown and his followers staged a raid on a federal arsenal in Virginia. He wanted to arm slaves to overthrow the whites and create a free black state. They were then captured and hanged for treason.
John C. Breckinridge
Southern Democrat nominated for president in the 1860 election
Crittenden Compromise
This was an unsuccessful effort to avert the Civil War during the winter of 1860-1861. Senator John J. Crittenden, a Kentucky Whig and disciple of Henry Clay, proposed six constitutional amendments and four resolutions.…
Harpers Ferry
A federal arsenal in Virginia that was captured in 1859 during a slave revolt
Level 400