Level 40
Level 41

Early Middle Ages


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Charlemagne
Frankish ruler in the 700s who expanded power over France, Germany, Austria, Italy, and northern Spain
Papal States
a region in central Italy ruled by the Pope
counts
officials chosen by Charlemagne to rule parts of his empire in his name
navigation
planning a course of travel, such as the Vikings crossing the sea
sagas
long Icelandic stories about great heroes and events
Leif Eriksson
Viking who led settlers to the eastern shores of what is now Canada
knights
highly skilled soldiers who fought on horseback
fief
an estate granted to a vassal by his lord
vassal
a person who accepts a fief from a lord
feudal system
the political and social system of exchanging land for service
fealty
a knight's loyalty to the lord who gives him land
manorial system
an economic system built around large estates called manors
Serfs
An agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate
Alfred the Great
first king of the united England and who drove out the Vikings
Domesday Book
the record of William's survey of England's people and their property
Eleanor of Aquitaine
powerful French duchess; divorced the king of France to marry Henry II of England and ruled all of England and about 1/2 of France with him
Magna Carta
Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility
Parliament
A legislature consisting of the house of lords and the houese of commons, half were elected while half were appointed
Hugh Capet
first ruler from the Capetian dynasty that ruled and expanded France
Otto the Great
Saxon duke who became emperor of the Holy Roman Emperor in the early 900's
Reconquista
Christian leaders' effort to retake the Iberian peninsula from the Moors
piety
a person's level of devotion to religion
Pope Gregory VII
Set reforms that resulted in only the church being allowed to appoint bishops
pontificate
term of office of a particular pope
Henry IV
The irst Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris, also devised Edict of Nantes.
Level 42