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Level 43

Middle Ages in Europe


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Charlemagne
Frankish ruler in the 700s who expanded power over France, Germany, Austria, Italy, and northern Spain
Manorialism
Economic System
Feudalism
a governing process that allowed medieval societies to protect themselves
Gothic architecture
Architecture of the twelfth-century Europe, featuring stained-glass windows, flying buttresses, tall spires, and pointed arches
The Magna Carta
A treaty signed by King John of England in 1215.
Crusades
The wars fought by Christians to take control of the Holy Land in the east from the Muslims are called the _______.
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king
fief
an estate granted to a vassal by his lord
monasteries
a community of monks
monk
a religious man who lived apart from society in an isolated community of other monks
canon law
the Church's own body of laws; this law applied to religious teachings, the behavior of the clergy, and even marriages and morals
Chivalry
code of conduct for knights
Byzantine Empire
Preserved the cultural heritage from Greece and Rome; capital was Constantinople
fall of Rome
: fell to barbarians, the Eastern half was prosperous, and 476 AD was the time of the fall for the western Roman Empire.
Black Plague
A disease carried by fleas on rats that traveled to Europe from Asian trade ships. The Plague engulfed Europe during the Middle Ages. It killed about one-third of the population. This caused the feudal sy…
The Hundred Years War
A war fought between England and France over lands England possessed in France and feudal relationships. (1337-14543)
Thomas Aquinas
scholar who argued that most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument.
scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Charles Martel
the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to…
Hagia Sophia
large church constructed in Constantinople during the reign of Justinian
Justinian
Most famous Byzantine Emperor
Battle of Tours
European armies defeat Muslim armies and stop the spread of Islam in Europe
Benedictine Rule
the code followed by Benedictine monks
papal supremacy
authority over all secular rulers
interdict
An order excluding an entire town, region, or kingdom from receiving most sacraments and Christian burial, a powerful noble who opposed the Church could face this, and even the strongest ruler gave in rather …
Reconquista
Christian leaders' effort to retake the Iberian peninsula from the Moors
Justinian Code
A single, uniform code that compiled all Roman laws. It decided legal questions that regulated whole areas of Byzantine life (Example: Marriage, slavery, property, inheritance, women's rights, and criminal justice). Lasted for 900 years and influenced modern law codes.
Level 44