Level 433
Level 434

Restructuring the Postwar World


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united nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Iron Curtain
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.
Containment
Containment foreign policy towards communism is containment
Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine 1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
Cold War
Series of events between U.S. and USSR where they compete for global dominance without directly fighting each other (capitalism vs. Communism)
NATO
Created in 1949-Nations in Western Europe who were friendly towards the US.
Warsaw Pact
Created in 1955-Nations in Eastern Europe who were dominated by the USSR.
Brinksmanship
Eisenhower-Dulles foreign policy. Take the country to the brink of war, using the threat of massive retaliation with nuclear weapons as a diplomatic tool.
Yalta Conference
February 1945, war against Germany and Japan was still ongoing, but war was considered pretty much over
berlin airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
U-2 incident
..., The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. prod…
Sputnik
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Mao Zedong
a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949
Jiang Jieshi
Leader of the Nationalist Party after Sun Yat-sen
commune
a group of city-state's leading citizens
Red Guards
Radical students and young people. All for the new Cultural Revolution.
Cultural Revolution
a social-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 until 1976. its stated goal was to preserve 'true' Communist ideology in the country by purging remnants of capitalist and traditional elements
Great Leap Forward
Plan to rapidly industrialize China during the 1950's
Douglas MacArthur
General who commanded the US forces in Asia during WW II
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese communist leader
Domino Theory
President Eisenhower's theory that if Vietnam fell communist, other countries would also soon fall communist; like dominoes. Therefore, it was important to keep Vietnam from falling communist
Ngo Dinh Diem
Corrupt, oppressive, and unpopular leader of South Vietnam. At first, he was supported by the US but was later overthrown and executed by his own government officials
Vietcong
South Vietnam
Vietnamization
Program started by Nixon to make South Vietnam responsible for its own defense while slowly pulling US troops out of Vietnam
Richard Nixon
1969-1964; Republican; Ended Vietnam War; Recognized China/ Watergate scandal; First president to resign
Khmer Rouge
Communist guerilla fighters in Cambodia
Kim Il Sung
Communist leader of North Korea in 1950s
French Indochina
(DDE) a French colony that included Vietnam , Laos, and Cambodia, but Vietminh captured the French fortress of Dien Bien Phy, North was a Communist State, south independent, they wanted to resist of Communism.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
This law allowed the president to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the U.S. to prevent further aggression in Vietnam.
Pol Pot
Communist leader of Cambodia
Third World
Countries that experienced imperialism and has a unstable government. Countries not aligned with neither superpowers
Nonaligned nations
Independent countries of the third firce
Fidel Castro
..., Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and…
Anastasio Somoza
the dictator of Nicaragua and a US ally. His government was overthrown by leftist revolutionaries (Sandinistas) in 1979.
Daniel Ortega
Becomes the president after Somoza Govt overthrown
Ayatollah Ruholla Khomeini
Islamic religious leader who led a revolution to overthrow Iran's government in 1979;
Cuban Missile Crisis
the US discovers nuclear missiles are on their way to cuba so they take action and the ships from russia turn around
John F Kennedy
A very famous US president during the Cold War. He was killed by a man with a gun in the 1960's.
Nikita Khruschev
Soviet leader who sent missiles to Cuba
Leonid Brezhnev
Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia to restore Communism
Lyndon B. Johnson
Believed that only large-scale American invasion will save South Vietnam.
detente
reducing of tensions between the USSR and the US which led to the end of the Cold War
SALT
negotiations between the US and the USSR which opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries'
Ronald Reagan
A US president during the cold war (the last one before the Berlin Wall was destroyed).
brinkmanship
..., A policy of threatening to go to war in response to any enemy aggression.
to use as a buffer zone;
Why did the Soviet Union choose to occupy a strip of countries on its western border?
the "iron curtain"
What did Winston Churchill call the division between East and West?
Berlin;
The Americans were able to "defeat" Soviet aggression by using an airlift into what city?
North Atlantic Treaty
What was the name of the military alliance formed by Western Europe, the U.S. and Canada?
developing an atomic bomb (nuclear
What Soviet scientific accomplishment in 1949 stunned the United States?
What was brinkmanship?
the willingness to go to the brink or edge of war
Kuomintang;
Which side did the United States take in the Chinese Civil War?
retreated to the island of Taiwan;
What became of the Nationalists after their defeat?
Economy;
What area of Chinese life did the new leader seek to reform first?
The Great Leap Foward
What was the name for the plan to expand collective farms?
Korea
In 1950 war broke out in what country?
domino effect
What political concept was behind the U.S. willingness to get involved in Vietnam?
North Vietnam
Who won the war in Vietnam?
Cambodia
A country bordering Vietnam that contained many strong communists; the US started fighting here in 1970; Part of Ho Chi Minh Trail ran through this country
US: CIA
What are the names of the spy agencies of the U.S. and the Soviet Union (respectively)?
Bay of Pigs;
What failed invasion embarrassed the United States?
Nicaragua
U.S Kept military force in where from 1912-1933
Iran
Muslim rebels overthrew a U.S.-supported dictator in what Middle Eastern country?
Afghanistan
1979,The Soviet Union sent troops into neighboring Afghanistan to support its Communist government against guerilla attacks by fundamentalist Muslims.
Nikita Khrushchev
For the first few years after Stalin's death in 1953, a group of leaders shared power. As time went by, however, one man did gain power. Like Stalin, he believed that communism would take …
Czechoslovakia
country that tried to create democratic communism but failed
Richard M. Nixon
Eisenhower's vice presidential running mate
Ronald Regan
Soviet-American relations worsened again under the administration of which U.S. President?
Level 435