Level 437
Level 438

Eisenhower & Truman & the Cold War


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harry truman
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
Post War Economy
fear of depression; keynes theories respected; Government seen as necessary; Truman failed to
GI Bill of Rights
a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s). Benefits included low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business, cash payments of tuition and li…
Taft Hartley Act
got rid of "closed shop" : a 1947 law giving the president power to halt major strikes by
George Kennan
..., an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of…
Bernard Baruch
economic advisor to United States Presidents (1870-1965), Head of the War Industries Board, which
United Nation
international orgnization established after WWII with the goal of maintaining peace and cooperation in
Iron Curtain
A term popularized by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet Union's policy of isolation during the Cold War. The barrier isolated Eastern Europe from the rest of the world.
Truman Doctrine
Truman Doctrine 1947 - Stated that the U.S. would support any nation threatened by Communism.
George Marshall
United States general and statesman who as Secretary of State organized the European Recovery Program (1880-1959)
Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall in 1947, he proposed massive and systematic American economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism.
berlin wall
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Chiang Kai-shek
leader of the nationalist government in China. US supported Chiang by giving aids
Mao Zedong
a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949
General Douglas MacArthur
United states general during the Great Depression, World War ll and Korean War. Was forced by Truman to resign in 1951 (pg. 66) -Alex
Dixiecrat
Southern democrats who left the party in 1948 in opposition to President Truman's civil rights
J. Strom Thurmond
Dixiecrat candidate for President v. Truman
Henry Wallace
A former Democratic who ran on the New Progressive Party due to his disagreement on Truman's policy
Fair Deal
It was the term given to an ambitious set of proposals put forward by United States President truman to the united states congress.It marked the new stage in history of modern liberalism in the…
North Atlantic Treaty Organization
In 1949, the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact. In 1955, the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nat…
NSC-68
review of security policy, advocated large conventional and nuclear forces
Hot War
actual fighting between the warring parties
Korean War
the 'Forgotten War'; 1950-1953
Yalu River
Where MaCarthur drives communists back to the river that borders China, China wants them to pull back
Police Action
phrase used to describe the US intervention in Korea in 1950; the US never officially declared war.
Loyalty Review Board
effort to control possible communist influence in US gov: boards to investigate "security
Whittaker Chambers
TIME magazine editor and former communist. Confessed to spying for the Soviet Union during the
Alger Hiss
American lawyer involved in the establishment of the United Nations both as a U.S state department and the U.N official. Hiss was accused of being a soviet spy.
Rosenbergs
Husband and wife tried/excuted for treason under suspecision of communist influence and trading atomic
Joseph McCarthy
A US senator who was very worried that communists were trying to take over the world (and the US).
Adlai Stevenson
A US ambassador to the United Nations during the Cold War.
Dwight Eisenhower
Supreme Commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II leader of troops in Africa and commander in D-Day invasion. President in the 1950s
John Dulles
Secretary of State for Eisenhower, and was major advocator in the fight against communism. He pushed
Massive Retaliation
The "new look" defense policy of the Eisenhower administration of the 1950's was to threaten
Army McCarthy Hearings
When McCarthy accused ppl in Army, the Secretary of Army orders investigations. Televised, shows McCarthy = fraud
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese communist leader
Dien Bien Phu
The Communists Vietnamese forces defeated the French at what battle causing the French to want to get out of Vietnam?
SEATO
South East Asia Treaty Organization; always diagreements among members to keep communism out of South East Asia
Gamal Nasser
became president of Egypt. He replaced/deposed Farouk (a king). He also was very popular, & wanted to
Eisenhower Doctrine
Apply containment to the Middle East, used CIA to overthrow communist gov'ts (Guatemala and Iran)
Nikita Khruschev
Soviet leader who sent missiles to Cuba
Sputnik
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
U2 spy plane
built in the 1950s to help watch the soviet union as a surveillance plane only; shot down and causes
Organization of the american states
OAS; decision were reached by a 2/3 majority with no special US power.
Internal Security Act
Law enacted in 1950 required members of the Communist Party to register with the government.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal (violate 14th amendment granting blacks citizenship) and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Little Rock
City in which 9 African-American students were integrated into a previousl all white high school in
Massive Resistance
policy declared by U.S. Senator Harry F. Byrd, Sr. on February 24, 1956 to unite other white
Civil Rights Act of 1957
primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation passed by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction following the American Civil War.
New Frontier
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant
truman (dem)
president from 1945-1953
eisenhower (rep)
president from 1953-1961
what was eisenhower before wwii?
commander of allied forces in north africa
commander of nato
what was eisenhower after wwii?
George Dewey
Admiral of the Navy, the only person in U.S. history to have attained the rank. Admiral _______ is best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. …
New York
charles ii wanted to consolidate the crown's holdings along the Atlantic coast and close the gap between the New England and Chesapeake colonies. the dutch had give up New Amsterdam, Manhattan Island and the Hudson River.
strom thurman
third party candidate for president in 1948
Dixiecrats
Southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party. They were white supremacy in the face possible federal intervention
president protemp
what position did thurman later hold in senate?
thurman's party
democrat (states rights party) changed to rep
john foster dullest
secretary of state for eisenhower
allen dullest
who was dullest's brother and what was his job
president from 1961-1963
john f kennedy (dem)
president from 1963-1969
lyndon b johnson (dem)
president from 1969-1974
richard nixon (rep)
president from 1974-1977
gerald ford (rep)
president from 1977-1981
jimmy carter (dem)
president from 1981-1989
ronald reagan (rep)
president form 1989-1993
george hw bush (rep)
Stalin
communist leader of the Soviet Union during WWII; sent enemies of the state to gulags in Siberia
kruschev
leader of soviet union 1953-1964
vp of u.s 1961-1963
lyndon b johnson (texas)
vp of u.s 1969-1973
spiro agnew (resigned because he was going to jail)
the rosenburgs
accused of being spies and were executed (ethel and julian)
alger hiss and whittaker chambers
huac accused of being spies (communists)
addlai stevenson
dem candidate for president in 1952 and 1956
westmoreland
american general of navy in vietnam
eugene mccarthy
leader of the doves and announces he will run for president
Arthur Miller
U.S. dramatist who wrote The Crucible
joseph heller
wrote catch 22
JD Salinger
Wrote " the catcher in the rye"
Elvis Presley
Rock singer whose hits like Hound Dog and Jailhouse Rock and flamboyant style of gyrating hips greatly influenced American culture.
Jack Kerouac
A key author of the Beat movement whose best selling novel, On the Road that stressed an unrestricted (spontaneous) lifestyle.
allen giinsberg
poet beatnik who wrote howl
Gorbachev
A Soviet president during the Cold War (the last one before the end of the Soviet Union).
Douglas MacArthur
General who commanded the US forces in Asia during WW II
practiced civil disobedience
martin luther king
earl warren
investigated kennedy's death
Rosa Parks
Civil rights leader which refused to give up her seat on the whites bus and thus created a civil rights movement.
Henry Kissinger
National security advisor for President Nixon; had secret negotiations with a North Vietnamese negotiationist Le Duct Tho
ping pong diplomacy
nixon made peace with communist china by exchanging ping pong teams
kennan and acheson
helped with marshall plan
reza pahlavi
ruler of iran
diem
rulers of south vietnam
baby doctor
benjamin spock
Robert Kennedy
advised JFK to use a naval blockade to deal with the Russians during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
shriver
head of peace corp
kennedy's first wife
jacqueline bouvier kennedy onassis
camelot
nickname for kennedy's administration
oswald
shot jfk
shot oswald
jack ruby
le duc tho
won paris joint peace prize with kissinger
what was the baby boom?
when soldiers came home and had babies
g.i bills
bill that helped veteran go to school and buy homes
soldier built suburbs
what is a levittown
what was the message of daisy ads?
if you vote for goldwater you vote for war
HUAC
..., The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,
nixon
president who became known for activities in huac
nixon and kennedy
participants in first televised presidential debate
Perestroika
a policy initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev that involved restructuring of the social and economic status quo in communist Russia towards a free market based economy and society. Liberalize Communism in Russia. Fixed agricultural deficit. 1985-86.
Ideology
What did, in Hitlers eyes, take a front seat to economic development (evident in his support of the smallholder farms)?
glanost
openness, policy where gorbechev allowed people to criticize government officials and censorship was relaxed
second red
widespread effort to root out communist spies after World War II that lasted for nearly a decade
domino
the idea that if a nation falls under communist control, nearby nations will also fall under communist control
Dien Bien Phu
town in vietnam of last battle between french and vietnam
17th parallel
boundary between north and south vietnam
38th Parallel
Dividing line between North and South Korea. Ended in stalemate.
49th Parallel
The Oregon Treaty of 1846 established an U.S./Canadian (British) border along this parallel. The boundary along the 49th parallel extended from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
22nd Amendment
Passed in 1951, the amendment that limits presidents to two terms of office.
FDR
Roosevelt during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. He was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms
Truman
now president, Roosevelt died
LBJ
Who said, "We are not about to send American boys nine or ten thousand miles from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves."
us, gb, france, russia
sectors of germany and berlin
warsaw pact countries
Romania, East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Czechoslavakia, Ugoslovia, and Bulgaria
NATO
Created in 1949-Nations in Western Europe who were friendly towards the US.
JFK
President of the USA from 1961-1963. During his short term, he made a major impact on national decisions.
square deal
theodore roosevelt
permanent members of security council
China, France, Russia, UK, USA (had veto power)
Ich bin ein Berliner
German: 'I am a person from Berlin'
Taiwan
When Chiang Kai-shek was defeated in China, where did he set up his Nationalist gov't?
smith act of 1940
made it illegal to advocate the overthrow of the US government by force or violence
dennis et al vs us
In this, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the Smith Act of 1940.
reinforces smith act
mccurran interantional security act of 1950
Interstate highway system
A network of freeways in the US. also called Dwight D. Eisenhower National highway system.
Military Industrial Complex
Eisenhower's term for a buildup between the defense industry and the Pentagon that spent billions on research and development of weapons
brinkmanship
..., A policy of threatening to go to war in response to any enemy aggression.
american hostage crisis
Iranian students took Americans hostage from the embassy in Iran in protest of the U.S.
cold war vs "hot war"
cold war means there is no fighting involved
Beatniks
Anti-conformists. Young poets, writers, and artists, criticized business and middle class society. Increase in juvenile deliquincy
Viet Minh
Communist-dominated Nationalist Movement. Ruled Vietnam when Japanese rule ended. Leader was Ho Chi Minh.
nixon doctrine
the U.S. will not do the majority of fighting in countries threatened by communism, but will provide
geneva talks
eisenhower and bulganin's agreement to "open aerial photography by opposing nations"
hungarian revolt
workers in east germany and poland demanded reforms from communist government
OPEC
(Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries) put an embargo on the US in the 1970s
U-2 incident
..., The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. prod…
berlin crisis 1958
Khrushchev told GB, US and France to get out of W. Berlin or USSR would sign separate peace
bay of pigs
..., In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the inva…
brown v topeka board of education
overturned plessy v ferguson seperate but equal ruling
Montgomery Bus Boycott
381 days where blacks carpool and busses almost go bankrupt until they are desegregated by Supreme Court
SCLC
Organization formed by MLK in 1957 to organize nonviolent resistance to achieve equality for African Americans
SNCC
Organization founded in 1960 by college students to organize sit-ins and other nonviolent protests and offer young people a voice in the movement; became more radical in the late 1960s under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael
sit ins
deliberately inviting arrest by sitting in restricted areas of segregated buildings
lps
long playing record albums
tonkin bay resolution
Gave President Johnson power to do whatever needed to protect Americans interests in the
cuban missle crisis
..., The Soviet Union was secretly building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, which could have been used for a sneak-attack on the U.S. The U.S. blockaded Cuba until the U.S.S.R. agreed to dismantle the missile silos.
Tet Offensive
Surprise attack by NVA and Viet Cong on major cities in the South during a Vietnamese holiday; military victory for US, but political victory for V.C; was the turning point in the war
key west
a town on the westernmost of the Florida keys in the Gulf of Mexico
guantanamo
A naval station in Cuba granted to the US by the Platt amendment
nuclear test band treaty
end the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere
SALT
negotiations between the US and the USSR which opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries'
start
strategic arms reduction treaty
hawks
supporters of war
doves
opposers of war
paris accords
1973 cease-fire agreement where the US agreed to withdraw their troops from South Vietnam
invasion of afghanistan
Soviet Union invades Afghanistan in 1979. U.S. aides Afghan rebels
Taliban
Establish a strict Islamic government
evil empire
Reagan's nickname for the Soviet Union, illustrated an end to detente
sygnman rhee
leader of south korea
kim ll-sung
North Korea ruled by this dictator, he became a communist ally of the soviet union
Hirohito
Emperor of Japan during and after World War II.
Federal Housing Administration
What was the FHA?
Cult of Domesticity
Used to describe the role of middle-class women during the late 19th century; women expected to keep the house clean, appear quiet, innocent, and sexually pure, and manage family's religious life
Betty Freidan
wrote "Feminine Mystique"
Eisenhower era development of consumer culture
Disneyland, mcD's, CREDIT CARDS, most people HAVE TV's
Joseph MacCarthy
most famous anti-Communist activist; Republican from Wisconsin
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States; an advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
DESEGRAGATED IT
Truman and the Army
Brown v. Board
ended " separate but equal" that had been established by Plessy v. Ferguson
Eisenhower
Which future US President was the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe during World War II?
Interstate Highway act 1956
huge public works under Eisenhower, led to white flight
John Foster Dulles
Dulles played a major role in designing the Dawes Plan that reduced German payments and temporarily resolved the reparations issue by having American firms loan money to German states and private companies; the money…
Warsaw Pact
Created in 1955-Nations in Eastern Europe who were dominated by the USSR.
Space Race
A competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union.
Ike's farewell speech
warned of dangerous military-industrial complex (newly-found power of the military to affect
Gamal Abdel Nassar
seized power in Egypt. He was determined to modernize Egypt and stop Western domination. He
Twenty-second Amendment
limited president to 2 terms
Taft-Hartley Act
Law passed congress in 1947 that allowed the President to declare an 80 day cooling-off period when strikes impact industries that affected the National interest, and required strikes to return to work while government condu…
GI Bill
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
Veterans Administration
administer a variety of benefit programs designed to facilitate the adjustment of returning
Sunbelt
A region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest that has seen
Levittown
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
Yalta Conference Feb 1945
FDR, Churchill, and Stalin divide Germany into 4 (Communism v. Capitalism)
World Bank
promote economic growth in war ravaged and under developed counties
San Francisco meeting
drew up charter for United Nations, created a bicameral assembly, security council-upper house
Nuremburg Trials
Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes
George F. Keenan
creator of Containment; therefore divided the world
National Security act
Passed in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It
Voice of America
1948; This government agency was created to make radio (and later TV) broadcasts of news and
General MacArthur
He was the commander of the US forces in the Philippine Islands who directed the Allied occupation of Japan.
Loyalty Program
Enacted by executive order, this allowed the U.S. government to screen its employees to determine if
Smith Act 1940
Anti-sedition Law, made it illegal to advocate the overthrow of the US government by force or violence
Level 439