Level 439
Level 440

American Imperialism


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Dollar Diplomacy
-President Taft's approach to US Foreign Policy from (1909-1913)
Great White Fleet
Used to represent how powerful our navy was.
Manifest Destiny
The belief the the U.S. not only had the divine (God-given) right, but that God meant for the U.S. to expand from coast to coast - from the Atlantic Ocean in the East to the Pacific in the West.
Reconcentration policy
When Cubans started to rebel, Spaniards begain to reorganize prisoners into labor camps.
Boxer Rebellion
Chinese revolutionaries revolt to overthrow and remove western influence from China; which took place the end of the Qing dynasty between 1899 and 1901
Commodore Matthew Perry
Commodore of fleet during Spanish-American war in Cuba
Emilio Aguinaldo
led the independence movement in the Philippines
Protectorate
a political unit that depends on another government for its protection
Sanford B. Dole
American businessman (think Dole fruit) who took over Hawaii
Treaty of Paris
Treaty signed in 1783, which provided for the following: (1) Britain would recognize the existence of the United States as an independent nation. (2) The Mississippi River would be the western boundary of that nat…
William McKinley
-US President (1897-1901)
Purchase of Alaska, 1867
Secretary of State William Seward purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. Many Americans saw it as useless, referred to Alaska as Seward's Folly. Later became a good bargain because of the oil and gold found there.
U.S.S. Maine explodes, 1898
February 15, 1898 - U.S. warship that exploded in a Cuban harbor. It was possibly an explosion from a mine in the Bay of Havana that crippled this warship, but U.S. newspapers blamed Spain…
Annexation of Hawaii, 1898
American troops captured Manila on August 13, 1898, allowing the focus to turn to Hawaii, the "Crossroad of the Pacific." An annexation resolution of Hawaii was rushed through Congress and approved by McKinley on J…
Spanish-American War, 1898
Also called the Spanish-American-Cuban-Filipino War. Caused by the yellow press and the USS Maine explosion. Fought in Philippines and Cuba. Ended in the US annexing the Philippines and having political control over Cuba du…
U.S. captures the Philippines, 1898
Aguinaldo was captured at Palanan, Isabela on March 23, 1901 and was brought to Manila. Convinced of the futility of further resistance, he swore allegiance to the United States and issued a proclamation callin…
Open Door Policy, 1899
Actual effect: forced China to open doors to rest of world and forced trade.
McKinley assassinated; Teddy Roosevelt becomes president, 1901
William McKinley was assassinated in 1901 by Leon Czolgosz so he was replaced with his VP Theodore Roosevelt. He was shot 9/6/1901 and died 9/14/1901 half a year into his second term.
Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty, 1903
Agreement that gave the United States unending sovereignty over a 10 mile wide canal across the Isthmus of Panama with annual payments to Panama. Occurred shortly after Panama's independence from Colombia.
Roosevelt Corollary announced, 1907
The Roosevelt Corollary was an addition to the Monroe Doctrine. It stated that no European countries were allowed to intervene in Latin American affairs. Latin American countries did not trust the United States, thinking …
Gentleman's Agreement with Japan, 1907
(1907) agreement in which the Japanese promised not to issue passports to laborers seeking to come to the US, in return for no Japanese segregation in the US.
Panama Canal opened, 1914
The American-built waterway across the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, is inaugurated with the passage of the U.S. vessel Ancon, a cargo and passenger ship.
William Randolph Hearst
(1863-1951). A highly successful publisher of several papers who used yellow journalism to boost success, the most famous of which was the New York Morning Journal. Served in the House of Representatives, and owne…
Joseph Pulitzer
He used yellow journalism in competition with Hearst to sell more newspapers. Owned first newspaper to amount to a million in circulation. He also achieved the goal of becoming a leading national figure of the Democratic Party.
Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt
Rough Rider, President, Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine gave international police power, made the Panama Canal possible, first president to invite an African American man to the White House, promised a "square deal."
William Howard Taft
27th President of the United States, strict constructionist who wanted to be on the Supreme Court, but Roosevelt picked him to be the Republican Candidate. Taft went opposite on Roosevelt's policies so much so …
Commodore George Dewey
commanded US forces which defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, winning the Spanish-American War
jingoism
American nationalism and pride fueled by social darwinism, yellow journalism, competition with European imperialism and policies of Mahan and Roosevelt. Basically aggressive nationalism, A belief in national pride (nationalism) and the desire for an aggres…
Imperialism
The take over of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people
expansionism
A U.S. policy to benefit the economy by "expanding" its markets for increased trade; more customers and to acquire more natural resources.
anti-imperialist
Isolationists who objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines …
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Seward's folly
Secretary of State William Seward's negotiation of the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867. At the time everyone thought this was a mistake to buy Alaska the "ice box" but it turned ou…
White Man's Burden
The idea that Europeans could and should civilize more primitive nonwhite peoples and that imperialism would eventually provide nonwhites with modern achievements and higher standards of living. Concept of Rudyard Kipling.
Cuba libre
Slogan that meant: "Free Cuba!" At the time, Cuba was controlled by Spain. Freeing Cuba was the re…
Remember the Maine!
A slogan of the Spanish-American war referring to the sinking of a battleship in Cuba. Stirred up by yellow journalism, this led McKinley to declare war.
De Lôme letter
Spanish Ambassador's letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898. Cre…
Rough Riders
Band of cowboy-esque soldiers in the Spanish American War in Cuba
bully pulpit
An invention by Roosevelt and his view on the presidency as a stage where he would speak about his views publicly and with great persuasion, gaining followers and public support from his large leadership factor.
gunboat diplomacy
TR's policy the pursuit of foreign policy objectives with the aid of conspicuous displays of military power—implying or constituting a direct threat of warfare, should terms not be agreeable to the superior force.
big stick diplomacy
Diplomatic policy developed by T.R where the "big stick" symbolizes his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the b…
Platt Amendment (1903)
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble.
Hawaii
Annexed in 1898. Republic of _______ established in 1887 with the Constitution of the Kingdom of _______. After overthrow of the Republic in 1893, American lawmaker Sanford B. Dole became President of the Republic of _______.
Philippines
country of Southeast Asia composed of many islands between Indonesia, Taiwan, and China
Cuba
Island to the south of the U.S., and of great economic interest (sugar/tobacco) to the U.S. economy. Sight of the _______ Rebellion and many battles during the Spanish-American War.
Guam
A new territory gained by the U.S. after the Treaty of Paris, _______ became a key coaling station in the Pacific Ocean for ships traveling to/from the Philippines.
China
Allied with North Korea against UN/US forces
Puerto Rico
-(1898) Spain grants them independence just in time for rule to switch to US
Alaska
Purchased from Russia for $7.2 million aka 2 cents per acre, _______, otherwise known as "Seward's Icebox" or "Seward's Folly" was considered by many in congress to be a irrational and foolish acquisition at the time.
Texas
US adds _______ and makes it part of them- Mexico thought this was act of war - US wins war and gets half of Mexico territory - including Texas, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, parts of California and Nevada
California
Host to many gold rushes. Drafted a new constitution to apply for statehood and forbade slavery. Taylor accepted California which caused another controversy.
Mexico
General Zachary Taylor moved his forces into _______ and was becoming a very popular leader with the American people.
Alfred T. Mahan
Outspoken advocate of American military expansion. Wrote The Influence of Sea Power Upon History (1890). _______ called for the United States to develop a modern fleet capable of protecting American business and shipping interests around the world.
Queen Liluokalani
Queen of Hawaii. Pushed for a "Hawaii for Hawaiians" agenda. Overthrown in 1893 by wealthy white settlers/landowners.
William Seward
Secretary of State under presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson. In 1867, _______ arranged for the U.S. to buy Alaska from the Russians for $7.2 million. _______ had some trouble persuading the House of Representatives to approve the treaty.
King David Kalakaua
Brother of Queen Liluokalani and friend of President Grover Cleveland. The last reigning king of the Kingdom of Hawaii.
King Kamehameha
Conquered the Hawaiian Islands, formally establishing the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1810 and founding the _______ Dynasty. By developing alliances with the major Pacific colonial powers, _______ preserved Hawai?i's independence under his rule.
José Martí
A Cuban national hero and an important figure in Latin American literature. In his short life, _______ was a poet, an essayist, a journalist, a revolutionary philosopher, a translator, a professor, a publisher, a…
Grover Cleveland
He was the 22nd and 24th president of the United States. He was known for being Honest and hardworking and for fighting corruption. He achieved the Interstate Commerce Commission and civil service reform.
Valeriano Weyler
The Butcher was a Spanish general, and Governor General of the Philippines and Cuba. He was noted for his Reconcentración policy of interning peasants under deplorable conditions. Hundreds of thousands of Cubans died in his concentration camps.
George Dewey
Admiral of the Navy, the only person in U.S. history to have attained the rank. Admiral _______ is best known for his victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish-American War. …
Theodore Roosevelt
who ran against the election as a 3rd part candidate?
Booker T. Washington
Called on Blacks to seek economic opportunities rather that political rights
Samuel Gompers
president of the AFL who railed against black and Asian workers
Luis Munoz Rivera
A Puerto Rican poet, journalist and politician. He was a major figure in the struggle for political autonomy of Puerto Rico.
General Nelson Miles
A United States soldier who served in the American Civil War, Indian Wars, and the Spanish-American War. Personally led the invasion of Puerto Rico.
Andrew Carnegie
He was an industrialist who preached the "gospel of wealth".
John Hay
-Sec. of State in 1890s
Nicholas II
Last Emperor of Russia, conservative, Slogan = Orthadoxy, autocracy, nationalism.
Mark Twain
He wrote novels which showed characters wanting to escape the constraints of society, giving voice to the romantic vision of the frontier.
Jane Addams
She was the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes. This helped start the settlment house system in America.
Francisco Villa
who was a rival to the Presient Carranze and attempted to provoke a war between Mexico and the U.S. by killing Americans?
John J. Pershing
A general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. _______ is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to General of the Arm…
Capitalism
An economic system that allows for individual choice, where the government does not interfere with business.
Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Written by President Monroe's Secretary of State John Adams. Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power w…
Sun Yat-sen'd Three Principles of the People
a political philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. The three principles are often translated into and summarized as nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people.
Open Door Policy
Spheres of influence, give all nations equal access to trade in China, guaranteed that China would not be taken ovr by any one foreign power
Moral Diplomacy
_______ is a form of diplomacy proposed by US President Woodrow Wilson in his 1912 election. _______ is the system in which support is given only to countries whose moral beliefs are analogous to that of the nation.
USS Maine
The _______ is best known for her catastrophic loss in Havana Harbor on the evening of 15 February 1898. Sent to protect U.S. interests during the Cuban revolt against Spain, she exploded suddenly without war…
The Rough Riders
_______ is the name bestowed on the 1st United States Volunteer Cavalry, one of three such regiments raised in 1898 for the Spanish-American War and the only one of the three to see action.…
Panama Canal
A 77.1-kilometre (48 mi) ship canal in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean (via the Caribbean Sea) to the Pacific Ocean. Project spearheaded by president Theodore Roosevelt.
Roosevelt corollary
Added to my he Monroe doctrine International police force to protect its economic and military in Latin America
Pearl Harbor
military base settled by US in Hawaii
Foraker Act
Enacted April 12, 1900. Officially known as the Organic Act of 1900, is a United States federal law that established civilian (albeit limited popular) government on the island of Puerto Rico, which had recently be…
Insular Cases
A series of opinions by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1901 about the status of U.S. territories acquired in the Spanish-American War. The Supreme Court held that full constitutional rights do not automatically (o…
platt amendment
U.S. can have naval bases in Cuba and intervene whenever U.S. wants
Teller Amendment
An amendment to a joint resolution of the United States Congress, enacted on April 20, 1898, in reply to President William McKinley's War Message. It placed a condition on the United States military's presenc…
Spanish-American War
Spain vs. US and Cuba, 1898
Philippine-American War
An armed conflict between the United States and Filipino revolutionaries lasting from 1899-1902.
Cuban Revolution
7 year guerilla war that eventually overthrew dictatorship of Batista in 1959
Mexican revolution
influenced by world war I. resulted in the ouster of Porfirio Diaz from power.
Queen Liliuokalani
A queen of Hawaii and the successor to King Kalakaua (who gave most control to the businessmen in Hawaii through a new constitution) that highly opposed control of Hawaii by the U.S. and wante…
new immigrants
Immigrants who came to the United States during and after the 1880s; most were from southern and eastern Europe.
Alfred Thayer Mahan
a United States Navy officer, geo-strategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named…
expansionists
Believed that the nation's success and prosperity depended upon enlarging its territory - favored American imperialism
Imperialists
people who want a national policy of gaining foreign territories or establishing dominance over other nations.
social Darwinists
Believers in the idea, popular in the late nineteenth century, that people gained wealth by "survival of the fittest." Therefore, the wealthy had simply won a natural competition and owed nothing to the poor,…
Reverend Josiah Strong
He was a Protestant clergyman who founded the Social Gospel movement that sought to solve problems brought on by industrialization, urbanization, and immigration. He believed that all races could be improved and uplifted by Christ. Wrote "Our Country"
WASPs
White Anglo Saxon Protestants; held deep prejudices against other whites
Richard Olney
Secretary of State under President Cleveland. He declared to the British that by trying to dominate Venezuela they were violating the Monroe Doctrine. U.S. mediated the Venezuelan boundary dispute.
James K Polk
President known for promoting Manifest Destiny.
nationalists
those in Ireland who wanted to gain more independence for Ireland from Britain
Maximo Gomez
Major General in Ten Year's war; Cuba's military commander in War of Independence
General Valeriano Weyler
A Spanish general who was sent to crush the Cuban revolt. By using "brutal" methods, he caused uproar in the United States, who called for immediate action to help the Cubans.
anti-imperialists
Opposed to US Imperialism: 1). Morality-believed that taking over Filipino's would violate American principle "the right of all people to independence and self-government" 2). Economics-feared competition from Filipino producers 3). Legality and Race-feared contaminating eff…
Level 441