Level 442
Level 443

Cold War: Timeline


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1943
The Big Three (Britain, the U.S. and the Soviet Union) meet at Teheran, Iran
FEBRUARY 1945
The Big Three meet at Yalta in the Crimea
MAY 1945
Germany surrenders; end of WW2 in Europe
JULY 1945
The Big Three meet at Potsdam
1947 (USA Domestic)
SMITH ACT: US government creates loyalty program for government employees; Smith Act makes it a criminal offense to conspire to teach and advocate the violent overthrow of the government
AUGUST 6 & 9, 1945
U.S. drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima & Nagasaki, Japan
August 15, 1945
Japan accepts surrender terms; end of WW2 in the Pacific
March 1947
Truman Doctrine: Congress grants $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey to defend against Communism
JUNE 1947
Marshall Plan: US Secretary of State George Marshall calls on European nations to draft plan for European economic recovery, offering aid in planning and support
JULY 1947
Containment Policy: George Kennan articulates America's policy to block peacefully the expansion of Soviet political and economic influence around the world
SEPTEMBER 1947
Stalin revives the prewar Comintern under the new name Cominform, in response to 16 European nations signing up for the Marshall Plan.
1948 (USA Domestic)
HUAC (House un-American Affairs Committee) investigates Hollywood; Former Communist Elizabeth Bentley names numerous government employees as Soviet agents; Whittaker Chambers accuses Alger Hiss of Communist ties and espionage
FEBRUARY 1948
Communists officially gain control in Czechoslovakia
June 1948
The Soviet Union imposes a blockade on West Berlin; The West responds with the Berlin Airlift. The blockade lasts for 321 days.
August 1948
North and South Korea are founded; independent countries are divided at the 38th parallel
SEPTEMBER 1948
Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea - Communist) is founded
April 1949
Signing of the North Atlantic Treaty May: Berlin Blockade ends
AUGUST 1949
The Soviet Union detonates its first atomic bomb
SEPTEMBER 1949
Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) established; German Democratic Republic (East Germany) established
OCTOBER 1949
People's Republic of China is established
1950 (USA Domestic)
McCarthyism: Senator Joseph McCarthy from Wisconsin delivers a speech in which he claims to have a list of "known" Communists making policy in the Department of State; Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are charged with atomic espionage
June 1950
North Korea invades South Korea; the UN and the US send troops to help South Korea, North Korea takes almost all of South Korea
October 1950
US crosses the 38th parallel; the US takes almost all of North Korea; the war is controversial as it may bring China and Russia into the war
March 1953
Stalin dies
JULY 27, 1953
Armistice is signed ending the Korean War
MARCH 1953 (USA Domestic)
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are executed
1954 (USA Domestic)
Communist Party briefly outlawed in United States as Eisenhower signs Communist Control Act; Senate condemns McCarthy, ending the McCarthy era
MAY 1954
Fall of Dien Bien Phu; French army is defeated in Vietnam and Vietnam split into the Communist north and the "democratic" south.
1956
USSR invade Hungary to suppress the Hungarian Revolution (attempted removal of Communism)
1957
US Supreme Court makes prosecution of Communists under the Smith Act virtually impossible
JANUARY 1959
Fidel Castro assumes power in Cuba, culminating a six-year rebellion that topples the government of General Fulgencio Batista.
OCTOBER 1959
Turkey and the U.S. sign an agreement to deploy 15 nuclear- tipped Jupiter missiles in Turkey.
May 1960
U-2 reconnaissance plane shot down over central USSR
AUGUST 1961
BERLIN WALL: East Germany closes the Brandenburg Gate, seals the border between East and West Berlin
JULY 1960
U.S. suspends the Cuban sugar quota, effectively cutting off 80 percent of Cuban exports to the U.S. The following day, the Soviet Union agrees to buy sugar previously destined for U.S. market.
SEPTEMBER 1960
The first large Soviet Bloc arms shipment arrives in Cuba.
JANUARY 1961
John F. Kennedy is inaugurated as 35th president of the United States.
APRIL 1961
BAY OF PIGS INVASION: With U.S. direction, training and support, 1,500 Cuban Emigres attempt an invasion of Cuba at the Bay of Pigs; 114 are killed and 1,189 are captured. In response, Fidel Castro or…
APRIL 1962
U.S. Nuclear missiles in Turkey become operational.
AUGUST 1962
U.S. intelligence receives several reports of Soviet missiles in Cuba during the month.
August 29, 1962
At a news conference, President Kennedy tells reporters: "I'm not for invading Cuba at this time...an action like that...could lead to very serious consequences for many people."
August 23 1962
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS: U.S. establishes air and sea blockade in response to photographs of Soviet missile bases under construction in Cuba. U.S. threatens to invade Cuba if the bases are not dismantled and warns …
August 28 1962
Khrushchev agrees to remove offensive weapons from Cuba and the U.S. agrees to remove missiles from Turkey and promises not to invade Cuba.
JUNE 1963
Hot Line is established, a direct teletype link between the White House and the Kremlin.
NOVEMBER 1963
South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem is assassinated. US President Kennedy is assassinated. Lyndon Johnson becomes U.S. President.
AUGUST 1964
GULF OF TONKIN RESOLUTION: US President Johnson orders immediate retaliation for the attack on U.S. destroyers Maddox and Turner Joy in the Gulf of Tonkin, allegedly by the North Vietnamese. Congress approves Gulf of To…
FEBRUARY 1965
Soviet Premier Kosygin visits Hanoi and agrees to give unconditional military aid to the North Vietnamese.
MARCH 1965
First U.S. Marines in Vietnam land at Da Nang.
DECEMBER 1965
U.S. forces in Vietnam number 184,300.
MARCH 1966
10,000 Buddhists march in Saigon protesting U.S. support for corrupt Ky regime. Anti-Vietnam War rallies staged in seven U.S. and European cities.
DECEMBER 1966
U.S. forces in Vietnam number 362,000.
DECEMBER 1967
U.S. forces in Vietnam number 485,000.
JANUARY 1968
Tet Offensive attacks on South Vietnamese cities by North Vietnamese and NLF troops.
MARCH 1968
My Lai massacre; Siege at Khe Sanh ends.
OCTOBER 1968
US President Johnson halts bombing of North Vietnam, invites South Vietnam and the Vietcong to Paris peace talks.
DECEMBER 1968
U.S. forces in Vietnam number 535,000.
JANUARY 1969
Richard Nixon is inaugurated as President of USA
MARCH 1969
U.S. bombing of Cambodia begins
JUNE 1969
Nixon Doctrine and "Vietnamization"; Nixon orders first troops out of Vietnam, U.S. forces number 475,200
NOVEMBER 1969
March on Washington draws record 250,000 anti-war protesters
APRIL - MAY 1970
Six University students killed in the US by National Guard while protesting Vietnam War
MARCH 1972
North Vietnam launches a new offensive in the South
May 1972
SALT (strategic Arms Limitation Treaty): US & USSR sign the SLAT treaty to limit their numbers of Nuclear missiles.
AUGUST 1972
U.S. bombers deliver largest 24-hour bombing of the Vietnam War on North Vietnam
DECEMBER 1972
Paris Peace Talks break down; Nixon renews bombing of Hanoi & mining of Haiphong Harbor
JANUARY 1973
Nixon announces Vietnam War will end on January 28 and troops will be removed within 60 days; Paris Accords establish cease-fire and political settlement of Vietnam War
APRIL 1975
Saigon falls to North Vietnamese troops as Americans evacuate
1979 - 1989
USSR invades Afghanistan. War turns out to be a disaster in both military and economic terms, contributing to the collapse of communism in the USSR. USA supports Islamic militants the Mujahadeen.
1983
US President Reagan refers to USSR as the "Evil Empire" and announces the Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI or "Star Wars") aimed at providing protection form nu\clear missile attacks from space-based defence, negating the idea of M.A.D.
1986
New USSR leader Gorbachev announces policies of Perestroika (economic restructuring) and Glasnost (Openness) that pave the way to dismantle Communism
1989
the year people were allowed to cross from East to West Berlin
1991
the year the Cold War ended and Soviet Union began to dissolve
Level 444