Level 452
Level 453

Civil Rights: Kennedy & Johnson


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de facto segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
Freedom Summer
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
SNCC
Organization founded in 1960 by college students to organize sit-ins and other nonviolent protests and offer young people a voice in the movement; became more radical in the late 1960s under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael
Fannie Lou Hammer
was an American voting rights activist and civil rights leader. She was instrumental in
Freedom Ride
Bus trips taken by both black and white civil rights advocates in the 1960s. Sponsored by the Congress
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States; an advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Voting Rights Act
outlawed literacy tests and other measures of preventing voting
earl warren
investigated kennedy's death
James Meredith
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi.
24th amendment
outlaws poll tax and millions of AA register to vote
Medgar Evers
Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his
Kerner Commission
a group that was appointed by President Johnson to study the causes of urban violence and that
Rosa Parks
Civil rights leader which refused to give up her seat on the whites bus and thus created a civil rights movement.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
381 days where blacks carpool and busses almost go bankrupt until they are desegregated by Supreme Court
Malcolm X
Militant civil rights leader
Nation of Islam
Syncretic new religious movement founded in Detroit by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad in July 1930s.
filibuster
The use of obstructionist tactics, especially prolonged speech-making, for the purpose of delaying legislative action.
Martin Luther King Jr
An American pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
compliance
Acting in accordance with the wishes, suggestions, or direct requests of other people
tolerate
To put up with; endure
Black Panthers
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest; "advocating self-rule for American blacks"
confrontation
A fight.
sit-in
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the forma…
wade-in
a demonstration in which people enter a segregated pool or beach as a protest
Richard M. Nixon
Eisenhower's vice presidential running mate
Fidel Castro
..., Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and…
flexible response
President Kennedy's Cold War foreign policy
Peace Corps
set up by JFK as an effort to help out third world countries
Alliance for Progress
program under Kennedy and Johnson that increased US economic aid to Latin American nations that agreed to economic and social reforms. ($20 billion over 10 years).
Bay of Pigs Invasion
an embarissing attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro that was organized by the US
Nikita Khrushchev
For the first few years after Stalin's death in 1953, a group of leaders shared power. As time went by, however, one man did gain power. Like Stalin, he believed that communism would take …
Cuban Missile Crisis
the US discovers nuclear missiles are on their way to cuba so they take action and the ships from russia turn around
hot line
direct telephone link created by Kennedy and Kruschev to allow leaders to communicate instantly in
Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
July 1963 all powers except France and China agree to stop testing in atmosphere, space and
Regime
a government in power
New Frontier
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant
Equal Pay Act
Act that requires men and women to be paid equally when they are doing equal work in the same
Space Race
A competition of space exploration between the United States and Soviet Union.
Warren Commission
Commission made by LBJ after killing of JFK, it was found that Oswald "acted alone" using a single-bullet theory as evidence.
advocate
to speak or write in support of; be in favor of
Lyndon B. Johnson
Believed that only large-scale American invasion will save South Vietnam.
War on Poverty
President Lyndon B. Johnson's program in the 1960's to provide greater social services for the poor and
Economic Opportunity Act
law enacted in 1964 that provided funds for youth programs antipoverty measures,
Great Society
President Lyndon B Johnson's proposals for aid to public education, voting rights, conservative and
Medicare
A program created/founded in 1965 that provides hospital and low-cost medical insurance to most
Medicaid
Provides low-cost health insurance coverage to poor Americans no matter how old that cannot get private
Immigration & Nationalities Act
This law made it easier for entire families to migrate and established "special
Warren Court
Supreme Court that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education and upheld other
Miranda v Arizona
Supreme Court case that establishes the rights of the accused. The accused must be notified of
overcame
conquered an obstacle
crucial
Extremely important; vital in resolving something
align
Decide to publicly support or not support a political group or country
outcome
tie, sent to the house of rep.
Level 454