Level 453
Level 454

Civil Rights Era

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Jim Crow Laws
Were racial laws enacted between 1876-1965 in US at state and local level.
Organization which fought for civil rights for African Americans, mainly through court cases (behind the Brown v. Board of Education case)
Congress of racial equality: an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality, a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the Civil Rights Movement from…
EO 9981
Ordered the end to discrimination in the military. It was the beginning of military desegregation in 1947. Military was officially integrated in 1954.
Jackie Robinson
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
Brown v. Topeka (Board of education)
Court ruled that "separate but equal" was unconstitutional in 1954. Ruled that schools must integrate "with all deliberate speed." Thurgood Marshall represented the NAACP and argued in front of the Supreme Court
Little Rock 9
(1957) Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. 9 African-American students became the first to attend. The 101st Airborne sent in by Eisenhower to escort the students to class.
Orval Faubus
Refused to allow African American Students to attend "White schools" and ordered the National Guard to prevent African American Students from entering. President Eisenhower Intervened to assert federal power and ordered federal paratroopers to es…
James Meredith
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi.
Emmitt Till
14 year old African American visiting from Chicago to Money, MS in 1955 who Said "hey baby" to a white women. Her husband and brother went to Till's uncle's house and took Till during…
Montgomery Bus Boycott
381 days where blacks carpool and busses almost go bankrupt until they are desegregated by Supreme Court
Rosa Parks
Civil rights leader which refused to give up her seat on the whites bus and thus created a civil rights movement.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
In 1957 this group was founded by Martin Luther King Jr. to fight against segregation using
Civil Rights Act of 1957
primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation passed by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction following the American Civil War.
Student non-violent coordination committee (SNCC)
Founded in 1960, they mostly used civil disobedience, which is purposely breaking laws as a form of protest. It consisted of African American and white members. They used sit-ins, freedom rides, and ran voter registration campaigns.
President of the USA from 1961-1963. During his short term, he made a major impact on national decisions.
Birmingham campaign
Movement organized by the SCLC and Led by MLK in 1963. It was intended to bring attention to integration efforts in Birmingham, AL. Non-violent demonstrations were combatted with violence and fire hoses. Eventually the discrimination laws were changed.
Martin Luther King Jr
Civil rights leader who organized SCLC, the Montgomery Bus Boycott, and the Birmingham campaign
March on Washington
Was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in uS history and called for civil and scone ices rights for African Americans
24th amendment
outlaws poll tax and millions of AA register to vote
Civil Rights Act of 1964
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
Voting Rights Act 1965
Official end to all voter discrimination providing federal enforcement of the 15th Amendment.
black power
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community., idea phrase…
Stokely Carmichael
Coined the phrase "black power" and led SNCC away from a nonviolent approach.
Malcolm X
Militant civil rights leader
Black Panther Partyterm-34
Extremist Socialist Black power Group founded in Oakland, CA in 1966. They originally encouraged armed citizen patrols to monitor police violence and free breakfast for children programs. Eventually they advocated revolution and sought for…
Huey P Newton
One of the founding members of the Black Panther party
The National Organization of Women (NOW)
Founded in 1966 to address discrimination in employment facing women after the Civil Rights Bill of 1964. First president was Betty Friedan, Author of The Feminine Mystique, a book that spread interest in feminist activism
Betty Friedan
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
Equal rights amendment (ERA)
A proposed amendment to the Constitution stating that civil rights may nit be denied on the basis of one's sex.
Title IX
Added to Education legislation in 1972. It prohibits exclusion of participation in sports based on gender. It provided opportunity for women to participate in high school and college athletics.
Roe v. Wade
Controversial Supreme court case in 1973 that upheld a woman's right to abortion.
26th Amendment
Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18 because it was unfair that those eligible for draft were not eligible to vote
Cesar Chavez
Organized Union Farm Workers (UFW); help migratory farm workers gain better pay & working conditions, Non-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from 1963-1970. Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike aga…
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Used dramatic civil disobedience to bring attention to Native American Rights in the 1970s like occupying the island of Alcatraz for 19 months (1969-1971).
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States; an advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
The act of uniting or bringing together, especially people of different races.
Martin Luther King, Jr
civil rights leader who opposed discrimination against African-Americans by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations; was assassinated in Memphis, TN
Civil Disobedience
A nonviolent refusal to obey a law in order to get it changed.
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the forma…
affirmative action
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination. Improving economic and educational opportunities…
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal (violate 14th amendment granting blacks citizenship) and ordered all public schools desegregated.
legal separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Behavior targeted at individuals or groups and intended to hold them apart and treat them differently.
Freedom Rides
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
Little Rock Nine
Nine African-American students who would be admitted to a white school after integration ruling
Plessy v. Ferguson
Upheld segregated railroad facilities
Racism implies prejudice. Is based on negative feelings and stereotypes rather than reason.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatica…
Emmett Till
14-year old Chicago boy who was murdered in Mississippi after whistling at white woman
an act of voluntarily abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for social or political reasons. Sometimes, it can be a form of consumer activism.
Black Panthers
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest; "advocating self-rule for American blacks"
National Organization for Women (NOW)
An organization formed to take action for women's equality
dejure segregation
segregation by law
defacto segregation
segregation that is based on residential patterns and is not imposed by law; "by fact"
Who said, "We are not about to send American boys nine or ten thousand miles from home to do what Asian boys ought to be doing for themselves."
Brown v. Board of Education attacked school segregation; in what city was the public school system located that sparked the court case?
televised debates
for the first time in history, these were held before the election of 1960 and it greatly affected the outcome of the elections
Great Society
President Lyndon B Johnson's proposals for aid to public education, voting rights, conservative and
from the letter from Birmingham Jail:"as you seek to explain to your six-year old daughter why she can't go to the public amusement park that has just been advertised on television...then you will understand…
Medgar Evers
Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his
Martin Luther King Jr
An American pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.
Linda Brown
She was a 7 year old school girl who was not permitted to attend an all-white elementary school blocks from her home
John F Kennedy
A very famous US president during the Cold War. He was killed by a man with a gun in the 1960's.
fighting that started because of the rise of the Nazi party in Germany and ended with the atomic bombings in Japan
Freedom Riders
A person who challenged racial laws in the American South in 1960's
A program created/founded in 1965 that provides hospital and low-cost medical insurance to most
1836, Arkansas becomes the 25th state.
I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed:'We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created _______
poverty line
the minimum income needed to live
Provides low-cost health insurance coverage to poor Americans no matter how old that cannot get private
George Wallace
1919-1998. Four time governor of Alabama. Most famous for his pro-segregation attitude and as a symbol for states' rights.
thousands of people attended Dr. King's funeral which was held in this city
civil rights
the rights due to all citizens
Black codes
1865-6 Southern laws that severely limited the rights of African Americans after the Civil War, Any code of law that defined and especially limited the rights of former slaves after the Civil War.- Primary pur…
Plessy vs. Ferguson
The 1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that states can have separate facilities for blacks and whites as long as they are equal.
to violate
to open to people of all races or ethnic groups
Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka
1954 case in which Supreme Court ruled that "separate but equal" education for black and white students was unconstitutional
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
American Civl Rights movement in the 1960's and it's emerged a student meeting organized by Ella Baker.
Voting Rights Act
outlawed literacy tests and other measures of preventing voting
A system in which government agencies make cash payments to the poor
earl warren
investigated kennedy's death
Lyndon Johnson
36th President was elected because Kennedy got assassinated
two languages
mandatory retirement
policy that required people to stop working at a certain age
Maggie Kuhn
forced to retire at 65; organized Gray Panthers against age discrimination and protested in D.C.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
A confined area of a city in which Jews could be controlled and segregated from general population until they were sent to concentration camps.
Martin Luther King, Jr
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Lyndon B. Johnson
Believed that only large-scale American invasion will save South Vietnam.
A poor, densely populated city district occupied by Jews linked together by economic hardship and social restrictions
Betty Frieden
author of The Feminine Mystique (1963) she spoke out against women seeking fulfillment solely as wives and mothers and wanted women to "establish goals that will permit them to find their own identity."
Brown vs Board of Education of Topeka
(1954) Supreme Court decision overturned Plessy v. Ferguson. Supreme Court ruled that all public schools should be desegregated with all deliberate speed. "Separate can never be equal."
Miranda v Arizona
1966 Supreme Court decision that sets guidelines for police questioning of accused persons to
National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
Equal Rights Advocates (ERA) is a non-profit women's rights organization that was founded in 1974. ERA is a legal organization dedicated to protecting and expanding economic and educational access and opportunities for women and girls.
American Indian Movement. demanded greater rights for Native Americans and preservation of their traditions (i.e. restoring of burial grounds, cultures, and Indian pride in ancestry), use violence to make its point. Called for a ren…
Americans with Disabilities Act
Passed by Congress in 1991, this act banned discrimination against the disabled in employment and mandated easy access to all public and commerical buildings.
Level 455