Level 455
Level 456

Civil Rights Movement


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Emancipation Proclamation
Went into effect on 1/1/1863; ends slavery in rebelling states/areas of the Confederacy and turns the way into a war against slavery.
Negro
African-American person
manacles
hand cuffs
fatal
causes death
brutality
extreme violence
sweltering
very very hot
injustice
not fair rules
oppression
long time cruel or unjust treatment
dedicated
committed to cause, give your life to someone or something
polarization
opposite ideas
fraud
trying to trick people, give them false information
sham
presenting something that is false as a true thing
hoax
making people believe something that is not true
tyranny
The unjust use of power, by the french monarchy.
Infamy
When FDR asked the U.S. Congress for a declaration of war on December 8, 1941 - he referred to December 7, 1941 as a "date which shall live in. . . . "
Federal Penal Code
The laws of a country; you can be punished if you break the law
segregation
legal separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
worked on behalf of African Americans since its founding in 1909
Plessy v. Ferguson
Upheld segregated railroad facilities
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States; an advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Linda Brown
She was a 7 year old school girl who was not permitted to attend an all-white elementary school blocks from her home
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
The case about segregated schools that were not and could not be equal to white schools.
integrating
bringing races together
Orval Faubus
Refused to allow African American Students to attend "White schools" and ordered the National Guard to prevent African American Students from entering. President Eisenhower Intervened to assert federal power and ordered federal paratroopers to es…
Elizabeth Eckford
one of the nine African Americans, who tried to squeeze past a guard member to get into the school.
Rosa Parks
Civil rights leader which refused to give up her seat on the whites bus and thus created a civil rights movement.
Boycott
an act of voluntarily abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for social or political reasons. Sometimes, it can be a form of consumer activism.
Dr. Martin Luther King
young baptist minister, civil rights leader
Mohandas Gandhi
A philosopher from India, this man was a spiritual and moral leader favoring India's independence from Great Britain. He practiced passive resistance, civil disobedience and boycotts to generate social and political change.
Civil Disobedience
A nonviolent refusal to obey a law in order to get it changed.
SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)
King and 60 other ministers started a new organization called.... their leaders emphasized nonviolent protests.
Richard M. Nixon
Eisenhower's vice presidential running mate
John F Kennedy
A very famous US president during the Cold War. He was killed by a man with a gun in the 1960's.
New Frontier
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant
Lyndon B. Johnson
Believed that only large-scale American invasion will save South Vietnam.
Lee Harvey Oswald
A former marine and advocate of Fidel Castro, accused of murdering JFK with a rifle from the Texas School Book Depository.
earl warren
investigated kennedy's death
Warren Commission
Commission made by LBJ after killing of JFK, it was found that Oswald "acted alone" using a single-bullet theory as evidence.
Great Society
President Lyndon B Johnson's proposals for aid to public education, voting rights, conservative and
poverty line
the minimum income needed to live
Head Start
Preschool program for kids coming from low- income families. Annalyn (page 746)
Upward Bound Corps
offered training to young people who wanted to work
VISTA (Volunteers in Service to America)
a kind of domestic peace corps of citizens working in poor neighborhoods.
Medicare
A program created/founded in 1965 that provides hospital and low-cost medical insurance to most
Medicaid
Provides low-cost health insurance coverage to poor Americans no matter how old that cannot get private
helped fund public housing projects
HUD (Department of Housing and Urban Development)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
sit ins
deliberately inviting arrest by sitting in restricted areas of segregated buildings
SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordination Committee)
key player in the civil rights movement for several years
Ella Baker
a guiding spirit behind SNCC and one of its organizers she also played an important roles in both the NAACP and the SCLC.
CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)
see whether the ruling was being enforced
Freedom Riders
A person who challenged racial laws in the American South in 1960's
Robert Kennedy
advised JFK to use a naval blockade to deal with the Russians during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
James Farmer
CORE leader
interstate buses
buses that crossed state lines
James Meredith
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi.
Ross Barnett
Mississippi governor
George Wallace
1919-1998. Four time governor of Alabama. Most famous for his pro-segregation attitude and as a symbol for states' rights.
Birmingham, Alabama
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and the SCLC targeted this place for a desegregation protest.
Medgar Evers
Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his
Freedom Summer
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatica…
Malcolm X
Militant civil rights leader
Stokely Carmichael
Coined the phrase "black power" and led SNCC away from a nonviolent approach.
black power
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community., idea phrase…
Black Panther Party
symbolized a growing tension between African Americans and urban police
Equal Pay Act
Act that requires men and women to be paid equally when they are doing equal work in the same
feminists
women who criticized the civil disabilities under which they lived and tried to bring changes
NOW (National Organization for Women).
fought for equal rights for women in all aspects of life, in jobs, education, and marriage.
ERA (Equal Rights Amendment)
a campaign launched from the NOW "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of sex."
Phyllis Schlafly
warned that the amendment would upset the traditional roles of society and lead to the breakdown of the family.
Sandra Day O'Connor
the first female justice of the Supreme Court.
Hispanic Americans
refers to those Americans who have come, or are descended from others who have come, to the United States from the coun- tries of Latin America and Spain
Ce´sar Cha´vez
Leader, organized thousands of farmworkers into the United Farm Workers (UFW).
UFW (United Farm Workers)
migrant workers formed unions to fight for better wages and working conditions
La Raza Unida
Hispanic Americans joined together in an organization to fight discrimination and to elect Hispanics to government posts called...
LULAC (The League of United Latin American Citizens)
won lawsuits in federal court to gua antee Hispanic Americans the right to serve on juries and the right to send their children to unsegregated schools.
Herman Badillo
the first representative to Congress of Puerto Rican origin, was elected from New York City
Roberto Clemente
Puerto Rican baseballer performed heroically both on and off the baseball diamond.
NCAI (National Congress of American Indians)
sought more control over Native American affairs.
Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968
formally protected the constitutional rights of all Native Americans
AIM (American Indian Movement)
which worked for equal rights and improvement of living conditions for Indians.
Little Rock, Arkansas
Central High School, an all white school, was ordered to admit African American students
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
His goal was a peaceful integration of the races in all areas of society
emphasized nonviolent protest
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
Upward Bound
helped poor students attend college
Job Corps
offered training to young people who wanted to work
Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA)
kind of domestic peace corps of citizens working in poor neighborhoods
sit-in
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the forma…
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
American Civl Rights movement in the 1960's and it's emerged a student meeting organized by Ella Baker.
civil rights group
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
interstate
crossed state lines (buses)
Birmingham, AL
site of protest in 1963
Selma, Alabama
site of a major demonstration by the SNCC
Watts
Section of Los Angeles
Los Angeles
site of the Watts riots
National Organization for Women (NOW)
An organization formed to take action for women's equality
Equal rights amendment (ERA)
A proposed amendment to the Constitution stating that civil rights may nit be denied on the basis of one's sex.
Hispanic
from countries in Latin American and Spain
Cesar Chavez
Organized Union Farm Workers (UFW); help migratory farm workers gain better pay & working conditions, Non-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from 1963-1970. Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike aga…
The League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC)
faught to guarantee Hispanic Americans to serve on juries and the right to send their children to unsegregated schools
National Congress of American Indians (NCAI)
sought more control over Native American affairs
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Used dramatic civil disobedience to bring attention to Native American Rights in the 1970s like occupying the island of Alcatraz for 19 months (1969-1971).
Wounded Knee, South Dakota
site of the 1890 massacre of Sioux by federal troops
Level 457