Level 456
Level 457

Civil Rights Movement

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Brown v. Board of Education, Topeka, KS, 1954
Supreme Court ruling reversing the policy of segregation from Plessy v Ferguson, declaring that seperate can never be equal and a year later ordered the integration of all public schools with all deliberate speed
Montgomery Bus Boycott, 1955
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court r…
Freedom Riders, 1961
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation; leaders Jim Farmer and Jim Peck
March on Washington, 1963
August - 200,000 demonstrators converged on the Lincoln Memorial to hear Dr. King's speech and to celebrate Kennedy's support for the civil rights movement. (putting pressure on the federal government to pass civil rights legislation)
Civil Rights Act of 1964
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
Selma March
A march that was attempted three times to protest voting rights, with many peaceful demonstrators injured and killed. Led by MLK. Resulted in Voting Rights Act.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatica…
Jim Crow Laws
Were racial laws enacted between 1876-1965 in US at state and local level.
lunch counter sit-ins
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the forma…
Organization which fought for civil rights for African Americans, mainly through court cases (behind the Brown v. Board of Education case)
Organization formed by MLK in 1957 to organize nonviolent resistance to achieve equality for African Americans
Organization founded in 1960 by college students to organize sit-ins and other nonviolent protests and offer young people a voice in the movement; became more radical in the late 1960s under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael
Malcolm X
Militant civil rights leader
Martin Luther King
Charismatic civil rights leader and baptist minister who campaigned against serration against blacks
Robert Moses
One of SNCC's most influential leaders; Harvard graduate, soft spoken teacher from Harlem,
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States; an advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
James Meredith
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi.
Bobby Seale
militant founder/leader of the Black Panthers
Stokely Carmichael
Coined the phrase "black power" and led SNCC away from a nonviolent approach.
Rosa Parks
Civil rights leader which refused to give up her seat on the whites bus and thus created a civil rights movement.
Congress of Racial Equality
(CORE) an organization by James Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality
National Urban League
Nonpartisan civil rights organization based in NYC that advocates on the behalf of African American and against racial discrimination.
Black Panthers
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest; "advocating self-rule for American blacks"
Nation of Islam
Syncretic new religious movement founded in Detroit by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad in July 1930s.
Freedom Summer
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Little Rock "9"
1st group of black students who were able to attend an all white school because President Eisenhower used the military to enforce the Brown v. Board of Education decision.
Segregation based on laws.
segregation by unwritten customs or traditions
The use of obstructionist tactics, especially prolonged speech-making, for the purpose of delaying legislative action.
A procedure used in the Senate to limit debate on a bill
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
The Supreme Court case that upheld a Louisiana segregation law on the theory that as long as the accommodations between the racially segregated facilities were equal, the equal protection clause was not violated. The Cou…
Truman banned racial segregation from armed forces, 1948
Executive Order 9981 is an executive order issued on July 26, 1948 by President Harry S. Truman. It abolished racial discrimination in the United States Armed Forces and eventually led to the end of segregation in the services.
Sweatt v. Painter, 1950
a U.S. Supreme Court case that successfully challenged the "separate but equal" doctrine of racial segregation established by the 1896 case Plessy v. Ferguson. The case involved a black man, Heman Marion Sweatt, who…
U.S. troops send to Little Rock, 1957
To protect the Little Nine black schoolchildren who decided to attend a previously all-white high school in Little Rock, Arkansas; because riots were expected and occurring, Eisenhower sent federal protection for these Little Nine. …
Civil Rights Act of 1957
primarily a voting rights bill, was the first civil rights legislation passed by Congress in the United States since Reconstruction following the American Civil War.
Greensboro sit-ins, 1960
Civil Rights tactic of blacks sitting in segregated restaurants until being served or removed. Kicks off in Greensboro, NC at Woolworth's lunch counter (white restaurant). Each day they came back with more and more protes…
United Farm Workers (UFW) founded, 1962
A union formed by Cesar Chavez and others who gained rights and better treatment for migrant workers(of whom, the vast majority were Latino).
Letter from a Birmingham Jail, 1963
A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn't speak out against racism. Advocated nonviolence protest methods
The Feminine Mystique published, 1963
written by Betty Friedan, journalist and mother of three children; described the problems of middle-class American women and the fact that women were being denied equality with men; said that women were kept from reaching their full human capacities
John F. Kennedy assassinated, November 22, 1963
In Dallas Texas in a motorcade, Kennedy was fatally shot by Lee Harvey Oswald. Many people questioned this event and believed that Oswald did not act alone or this was a government cover- up.
Mississippi Summer Project, 1964
A campaign in the United States launched in June 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in Mississippi, which up to that time had almost totally excluded black voters.
Watts Riots, 1965
a large-scale riot which lasted 6 days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, in August 1965. Though the riots began in August, there had previously been a buildup of racial tension in…
Malcolm X assassinated, 1965
Rejecting integration and nonviolence, Malcolm splits off from Elijah Muhammad's Black Muslins and is killed by them later upon declaring that blacks should use "any means necessary"
March from Selma to Montgomery, 1965
A march that was attempted three times to protest voting rights, with many peaceful demonstrators injured and killed. Lead by MLK
Grape workers' strike begins, 1965
Farm workers went on strike and made a consumer boycott (supermarkets ban grapes). They began to be concerned abour poinson again; Chavez goes on 36 day hunger strike; failed to get them to work togt…
Civil Rights Act of 1968
provided for equal housing opportunities regardless of race, creed, or national origin and made it a federal crime to "by force or by threat of force, injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone ... by re…
Martin Luther King, Jr., assassinated, 1968
Led many to believe that the nonviolent age was over.
Robert F. Kennedy assassinated, 1968
The murder of RFK in a Southern California hotel after giving a speech following a victory in CA's presidential primary. He had been a prominent front runner in the elections, with support and sympathy…
Stonewall Riots, 1969
Riots in the New York City neighborhood of Greenwich Village by members of the gay community against a police raid of a gay bar
Title IX, 1972
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
Roe v. Wade, 1973
A pregnant woman challenged the Texas state law that she had a constitutional right of her own body and privacy to legally get an abortion, and the Supreme Court agreed an abortion became lega…
Jackie Robinson
The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.
Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Nonviolent leader of the civil rights movement and founder of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Elijah Muhammad
Leader of the nation of Islam from 1945 to his death in 1975. He helped many people and was a strong advocate of civil rights, but was involved in some shady activities and lost…
George Wallace
1919-1998. Four time governor of Alabama. Most famous for his pro-segregation attitude and as a symbol for states' rights.
Betty Friedan
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
Cesar Chavez
Organized Union Farm Workers (UFW); help migratory farm workers gain better pay & working conditions, Non-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from 1963-1970. Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike aga…
separate but equal
Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal.
de jure segregation
Racial segregation that is required by law
de facto segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
Congress of racial equality: an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality, a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the Civil Rights Movement from…
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the forma…
Nation of Islam (Black Muslims)
A black supremacist group founded in 1930 by Elijah Muhammad, who believed that Allah would create a Black Nation of people unified against the white man. This group convinced itself that there was no pur…
black power
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community., idea phrase…
In the context of civil rights, the transportation of public school students from areas where they live to schools in other areas to eliminate school segregation based on residential patterns.
affirmative action
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination. Improving economic and educational opportunities…
National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
Equal Rights Advocates (ERA) is a non-profit women's rights organization that was founded in 1974. ERA is a legal organization dedicated to protecting and expanding economic and educational access and opportunities for women and girls.
the pill
gave women greater freedom to be sexually active without the risk of pregnancy; birth control method that weakened the link between sex and marriage
Name given to Mexican-Americans, who in 1970, were the majority of migrant farm labor in the U.S.
American Indian Movement. demanded greater rights for Native Americans and preservation of their traditions (i.e. restoring of burial grounds, cultures, and Indian pride in ancestry), use violence to make its point. Called for a ren…
National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (1956)
the largest public works project in American history when it was passed, authorized $25 billion to build 41,000 miles of roads, greatly assisting the burgeoning car culture of the 1950s
Executive Order 10730: Desegregation of Central High School (1957)
The president issued Executive Order 10730, sending in federal troops to maintain order and enforce the integration of the school.(Little Rock Nine's school) - later extended to other American schools
warned against a "military-industrial complex"
President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Farewell Address (1961)
Martin Luther King Jr
An American pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.
an act of voluntarily abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for social or political reasons. Sometimes, it can be a form of consumer activism.
nonviolent resistance
peaceful resistance to a government by fasting or refusing to cooperate
Freedom Rides
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
legal separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Belief that one race is superior to another
Behavior targeted at individuals or groups and intended to hold them apart and treat them differently.
Ku Klux Klan
(A grassroots vigilante movement) Organized in Tennessee in 1866, secret society organized after the Civil War to reassert white supremacy by means of violence
The 13th Amendment
The first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted after the American Civil War. This amendment officially prohibited slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
The 15th Amendment
This allowed all MEN of any race or color to vote.
Due Process
A Constitutional guarantee to apply fair and consistent legal procedures in courts of law to protect citizens against subjective actions by the government.
Level 458