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Why is Europe so financially stable?
It took natural resources from Africa
How were slaves taught to be anti-intellectual?
Enslaved Africans that could read were sold
Another word for slavery
How was slavery a psychological institute?
There were more slaves than masters, but they never tried to overturn their masters.
What was the only thing that slave men could control?
Define the term: Recognize not Honor Marriage
They knew they were married but when they felt the urge to have sex with them they would or sell them they would
during their child bearing years
When did women receive the best treatment
change their names
After the Civil War, what did Africans do?
wanted to interpret in their own way
Why did they want to establish their own religious institutions?
speak to the whole person
Why did they want to establish their own schools?
de jure: by law
2 Types of Jim Crow Segregation
a farmer giving part of their crops as rent for the land on which the crops are grown, instead of money.
What is considered a capital offense?
to teach Africans how to read and write
Solve a social problem
Purpose of Jim Crow Laws
to get Africans to understand their inferiority
process where black men/Women are incarcerated
Define Africans being disposable
don't have to be treated humanely
get all materials from sharecropper
law that excused a voter from a literacy test if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867
What is the grandfather clause?
If your grandfather couldn't vote, you can't
White primary election?
blacks can vote in the general election but not in the primary election
Violence and Intimidation?
Visit blacks the day before the election
cotton picking season
What is the African Education centered around?
keep blacks ignorant
Reasons whites didn't fund black colleges
Area blacks trained in...
`Experience with black schools
Second Great Migration
New York city
Cities they went to...
one room cabins that 2 families often shared, causing spread of disease
landlord would divide single family home into an apt
2 Loans Helped Whites Get Housing
VA loans: veteran no money down
Red-Lining...what is it known as??
draw lines around certain neighborhoods
no Public transportation
How did they keep blacks from moving out?
What percentage of blacks were necessary to cause white flight? Why?
Commercial white flight
Interstate Commercial Construction
led to the building of highways
Job Stereotypes about Blacks
-1 group goes in the morning
Relay System in Black Schools? Why is it bad?
Complaints parents have about the Education
Purpose of Police Brutality
felt blacks needed to be Controlled
few blacks on the Force
Reasons why police were seen as unjust
Dual Standard of Enforcement
things enforced in one neighborhood not the same in another
White Man's Ice is Colder
If its coming from a white man, it must be better.
Left the South to explore the same things in the North
50's movement where middle-class white Americans fled to suburbs leaving inner cities in poor conditions
4 events That Make Blacks Think of Self as Race
Some thought to promote Christianity or build a better world with a moral purpose (Henry Curzon -" the empire was the greatest instrument for good that the world has ever seen") and Cecil Rhodes…
APCs changed from voluntary to compulsory
Nation of Islam
Syncretic new religious movement founded in Detroit by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad in July 1930s.
Was a factor in the division of people as a factor of the fall of Rome
First Caribbean country to get independence
Latinos/blacks drop out
Born hating himself
Characteristics of a White man
Why were the black first generation killed?
so the kids can't learn from their parent's history
based upon your point of Reference
often settled in Northeast coastal cities because they were poor. Native-born hated them because most were Catholic. Most were young, female, and from rural counties
Gender Roles of Islam
Women need to do domestic stuff
How do blacks define their identity?
defined by what they buy off the racks
6 characteristics of a negro
-leave Christianity, embrace Islam
3 ways to transform to the Original People
How is history political?
-don't have to take black history before you graduate
The act of uniting or bringing together, especially people of different races.
MLK Message Directed towards...
large urban ghettos
Malkolm X message directed towards...
2 types of people
raise the conscience of the people
Most Conservative People
Differences between MLK and Malkolm X
Things Malkolm X Accomplished
increased the number of members
Malcolm X main goal
want blacks to think for themselves
Explain House negro, field negro
integration is foolish
Nation of Islam promotes
consequence of slavery
Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome
Characteristics of PTSS
-one's ethnic group
What do blacks have hostility towards
Series of events between U.S. and USSR where they compete for global dominance without directly fighting each other (capitalism vs. Communism)
use athletes as ambassadors
Jackie Robinson Integration
started as a serious basketball team
show that blacks are Child like
Reason for Globetrotters to be a funny act
Jackie Robinson testified against in Red Scare trials
allows people to see the mess of America
Marcus Garvey Quote of why we are treated so bad
We don't have a hometown to venture to like every other race
The basic rights given to all people.
Muslim Mosque Incorporated
appreciate the Common destiny
Organization of Afro American Unity
5 major ideas of Organizations
blacks control Goods and services in the neighborhood
Just because a man/woman tosses worms in the river--doesn't necessarily mean he is a friend of the fish
inaccessible health care
6 Reasons for a Watts Riot
New type of riots; burning buildings
give you quiz when you attempt to vote
1940 3nd great migration
tield to factor migration black from south to industrial north, cities became flooded with blacks and whites move to suburbs
why did whites move to suburbs and when
during 2nd great migration, 1) more land 2) concentrated wealth 3) lower taxes
Ghettos during second migration
ghettos overcrowded with 2nd migration, charge multiple families but the government allowed the fire hazards
wanted free enterprise - def
b/c blacks are getting subsidized by gov't now and whites dont want tax dollars used for that
at large voting
moved from city from of govt, so you can live in suburb of city but still vote for things in the city,
living under terrorism, feel like theres nothing you can do, taught to value white life more than black
What is 'ahimsa'?
police ignored black issues only responded to whites, ben mongtogemery got lynched couldn't have funeral,
and his naacp group (who)
guy in negroes with guns, naacp head for awhile, was kicked off because he said that blacks needed to act with force to protect women after he lost rape case
major reason for bus
so black women could come to and from cleaning the homes of white people, rosa great example docile
Montgomery Bus Boycott
381 days where blacks carpool and busses almost go bankrupt until they are desegregated by Supreme Court
Nation of Islam: religious components and beliefs
First to respond to blak anger in north
Nation of Islam history
1920 founded in detroirt michigan, first to join migrants from south, earth takes on human form, allah gave human people his image
Nation of Islam beliefs in depth (crazy)
yacub: g-d born named yakuh sole purpose to destory his own people, tricknology: tricks and lies, made rac eof people with small brains and pale skin, a number of them regressed to gorillas, bring bl…
black economic empowerment
emphasized by nation of islam, wanted blacks to pool their money together, wanted black ownership and self sufficiency,
Leaders of NOL
Fard muhammed - founder of NOL, allah in person had a dissapereince put Elijah muhammed "Allah's messenger" in charge, Malcom X Nationa spokesperson
Marvin Garvey teaching
back to africa movement, pioneered idea of race first, every other group think of taking care of race first
Louis Ferricon beliefs
Ferricon always been critical of white american, saying blacks are route of proble,
music indsutry, shows how white man shapes black culture systematically destructive campaign
Malcolm X and what he did
Michigan born, mlk southern born, made black fashinable, made black consciousness, philosophy through northern uprising MLK shit rooted in chuch,
Malcolm X middle class blacks belief
X critical of middle class blacks, think they forgot about being black - middle clas sblacks had responsibility to help out providing for other blacks
X after NOL leading to assasination
Took trip to mecca, first time sees muslims of dif colors, starts to move away from idea white is devil, movs to more orthodox form of islam, creates orginization for african american unity OAAU bl…
1965: first race riot were blacks attacked white property, 6 days 30 dead, but the big number was the 35 million dollars of property damage, whites began to take notice of problem, soon within …
Malcolm X watts riot speech
My place as muslim girl, not to play with children in streets but to sit on porch - important kept her out of judgement of others cause she was different as islam
4 Reasons for March
Emergence of Black Power
Stokely Carmichael anmounces need for black power
opponents of Stokely Carmichael
Black Panther Party
symbolized a growing tension between African Americans and urban police
Black Panther Party 2
-50-70s period was a drive for students to get involved in things they care about
Leader of the Black Panthers- Sepratist
1961-62 (1 year after college law was passed)
a lot of things happened to raise consciousness of blacks on UC Berkley campus
Black vs Negro
blacks started to address themselves as blacks and not as negro
5 major goals of org
overcome class barrier between those with money and thos without
power of Mass media
Panther 10 pt platform
An economic system that allows for individual choice, where the government does not interfere with business.
Panther social programs
1. free breakfast for kids
women ran most of these programs and the programs served as a revenue generator (grant money)
Prominent women in rank
Erica Huggins & Elaine Brown
1. allowed them to get message out
FBI killed him, but nobody was held accountable for his death
persistent panther/police conflict
BPP started to decline (reasons)
A belief in the separate identity and racial unity of the African American community.
Principles of Kwanza
Rejection of European holidays
black nationalists felt that European holidays were imposed on black so they:
1. promote black culture
Phases of racial I dentity
1. pre-encounter stage--> oblivious to race
black cultural center
University of Illinois demands
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community., idea phrase…
the black panther party
One of the most fearsome new groups. Blended black nationalism and revolutionary communism and dedicated themselves to destroying both capitalism and the police in the ghettos. Defied authority; carried rifles; very militant. (also instituted …
Kennedy called for a peaceful revolution based on these concepts. The administration set out to help developing nations through the early stages of nationhood with aid programs aimed at improving agriculture, transportation, and communication. (…
doctrine of counterinsurgency
used to defeat revolutionaries who challenged 3rd world governments friendly with the united states. American military and technical advisers trained native troops and police forces to quell unrest and soldiers provided a protective shield aga…
Berlin wall crisis
Soviets erected a concrete and barbed-wire wall barricade to halt the exodus of East Germans into West Berlin, Kennedy decided against action and the wall stood for 40 years.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
an embarissing attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro that was organized by the US
Cuban Missile Crisis
the US discovers nuclear missiles are on their way to cuba so they take action and the ships from russia turn around
the Tonkin Gulf Resolution
Response to Tonkin Gulf Incident. Authorized the President to take all necessary steps to defend U.S. forces in Vietnam. Considered a declaration of war
the My Lai Massacre
A US army unit, Charlie Company, entered My Lai and for four hours mutilated, raped, sodomized, and killed unarmed Vietnamese civilians, most of them were women and children. Led by William Calley.
The Tet Offensive
What was the turning point in the war for Vietnam?( The North Vietnamese launched a set of surprise attacks, this set back the U.S. but, they were able to regain control)
Meredith March: "March Against Fear"
March led by James Meredith from Tennessee to Mississippi to encourage blacks to Register and vote
New Negro Movement
movement to the north (not the Great migration)
-1919 (soldiers coming home from the war)
James Weldon Johnson
wrote the national Anthem and Lift every voice and Sing
-Poet, novelist, journalist
Leader of the Universal Negro Improvement Association
-Universal Negro Improvement Association, Garvey
Black Star Line
Garvey (UNIA) steamship company
Nation of Islam (background)
Elijah Muhammad assumed control from Wallace Fard
-Homosexual, writer (poems, novels, essays)
Marine Corps in #REF!
7 year guerilla war that eventually overthrew dictatorship of Batista in 1959
-Jazz trumpeter, cultural arm of the Black Arts movement
-1st Prime Minister of Republic of Congo
1963 (Year of Violence)
Organization of African American unity
-AA in N,W centers were those who participated in the Great Migrations
-Poor housing stock (poor schools, relations w/ police, city services)
Black is Beautiful
cultural black nationalism
-LA populated by 2nd wave of Great Migration
causes: High unemployment; poor schools; inferior living conditions
Chicago (Promised Land)
-No longer the Promised Land, instead segregated urban centers
March to City Hall
led by King to Post the demands of core
Six Days in Newark
-Two white officers arrested black male for improperly passing them, discriminated against
-July 1966: arrested and killing of customer at a "blind pig"
Landmark 1967 Campaigns
-Richard Hatcher: Pledged to rid city of corruption, poverty, racism; "100% American;" he won
Coined the phrase "black power" and led SNCC away from a nonviolent approach.
Adam Clayton Powell
Abyssinian Baptist Church to US Congress
-prohibited racial segregation w/ fed. Funding, evolved into 1964 Civil Rights Act
Housing, Education and Labor Committee
-Min wage, medicaid, equal pay, standards for wages and work hours, "New Frontier and "Great Society", challenged poll tax, education and training for nurses, deaf, etc.
-Criticized for mismanagement and travel, sued and refused to pay, House stripped Committee and refused to seat him but won vacancy
Survival of Black People Conference
-Bay Area, dominated by radicals
Malcolm X tribute
-Grassroots Conference in SFO (1967)
CoFounders of BPP
Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale
wrote Soul on Ice while in prison
tension B/w Carmichael and SNCC
NYC Anti-War Demonstration
-Gathered in Central Park and marched on UN with a bunch of participants, simultaneous event in SFO
Aint Gonna Study War No More
Poor Peoples Campaign
-Martin luther King Jr: Fought for full employment, guaranteed income, and equal housing --> didn't finish
Memphis Sanitation Strike
-Rev. Lawson asked MLK to lend presence to this struggle which he did w/o much staff support, due to poor people's campaign effort
Martin luther King Jr. speech
I May Not Get There With You
Black Power Conference
-Newark, new face of black militancy
LBJ and FBI
Anxiety and campaign of leaders
Cambridge, MD Riot
-H. Rap Brown (chairman of SNCC) at center of tension, Gloria Richardson led the riot
a group that was appointed by President Johnson to study the causes of urban violence and that
SNCC Organization of LA solidarity and clashed w/ SC
Third World Revolutionary
-Black Power and the third world have intertwined destinies, anti-colonial struggle (like Cuba)
SC Asian/African Tour
Eluded the draft and loss of passport
National Black Political Convention
-March 1972 in Gary, Indiana
Ralph Abernathy- SCLC
Black Liberation Party
Major political party to compete on the same stage as Democrats and Republicans
now president, Roosevelt died
Chaired by Baraka
-Solidarity of African Americans worldwide, unify
The political and economic theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Black Power in AA culture
Folk expressions: rhythms of speech
Soul; equivalent of black aesthetic
need for individual and group identification
Lyrics and style
Sixth Pan African Congress
Organization founded in 1960 by college students to organize sit-ins and other nonviolent protests and offer young people a voice in the movement; became more radical in the late 1960s under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael
Organization formed by MLK in 1957 to organize nonviolent resistance to achieve equality for African Americans
Congress of racial equality: an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality, a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role in the Civil Rights Movement from…
Mary McLeod Bethune
-"First Lady" of the race
national Association of Colored Women
Alpha Kappa Alpha
-Became the first African American women's sorority
Fair employment practices commission
national Council of Negro Women
a guiding spirit behind SNCC and one of its organizers she also played an important roles in both the NAACP and the SCLC.
Black Power origin
-Carmichael used the term "Black Power" in a march on Mississippi (1966)
-Civil Rights Act of 1964
Mississippi Summer Projects
legal separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Plessy vs. Ferguson
The 1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that states can have separate facilities for blacks and whites as long as they are equal.
Booker T. Washington
Called on Blacks to seek economic opportunities rather that political rights
Gathering with a speech given by Booker T. Washington at which he stated his theories of accommodation and the need African American need to be economically self sufficient and not to protest for political or Civil Rights.
W.E.B Du Bois
He believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately. He helped found the Niagara Movement in 1905 to fight for equal rights. He also helped found the NAACP.
Educate 10% of African American population to motivate, empower, inspire and educate other African Americans.
Organization which fought for civil rights for African Americans, mainly through court cases (behind the Brown v. Board of Education case)
Ida B. Wells
An African American journalist and newspaper editor. An early leader in the civil rights movement, she documented the extent of lynching in the United States. She was also active in the women's rights movement…
Laws written to separate blacks and whites in public areas/meant African Americans had unequal opportunities in housing, work, education, and government.
Wilmington Race Riots 1898
1898: Democratic party wins and tells blacks to leave or be lynched. Wilmington, NC coup of 1898 inspired Jim Crow.
Thrived during the 1920s
First Great Migration
African Americans moved in to Northern cities because of job opportunities/ better social conditions.
Black American athlete who won 4 gold medals at the Berlin Olympics of 1936
An African American boxer who became a national hero when he knocked out German boxer Mac Schmeling
First African American fighter pilots.
The Daughters of the American Revolution barred this world renowned singer from performing at Constitution Hall in Washington D.C.
Double V campaign
African Americans fought for victory against the Axis powers abroad and victory against racism at home
Desegregation of Armed Services
In 1948, President Harry S Truman's Executive Order 9981 ordered the integration of the armed forces shortly after World War II, a major advance in civil rights. Using the Executive Order (E.O.) meant that Tr…
Fair Employment Act
President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 25, 1941 to prohibit racial discrimination in the national defense industry. It was the first federal law to promote equal opportunity and prohibit employment discrimination in the United States.
2nd Great Migration
The migration of more than 5 million African Americans from the South to the other three regions of the United States. It took place from 1941, through World War II, and lasted until 1970.
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal (violate 14th amendment granting blacks citizenship) and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Southern Democrats who opposed Truman's position on civil rights. They caused a split in the Democratic party. They were white supremacy in the face possible federal intervention
Little Rock 9
(1957) Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas. 9 African-American students became the first to attend. The 101st Airborne sent in by Eisenhower to escort the students to class.
Provide an excellent example of nonviolent civil disobedience
Capital of Tennessee.
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
March on Washington
Was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in uS history and called for civil and scone ices rights for African Americans
Chief of the police in Birmingham. He attacked protesters viciously with dogs, fire hoses, and electric cattle prods. He said that the streets would flood with blood before integration.
March that took place in Birmingham, AL in 1963 where children fought back against the injustice of segregation in Birmingham. Their nonviolent protest was met with firehoses and dogs who were turned on the…
Letter from Birmingham Jail
Dr. King argued that the citizens have "a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws."
Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi.
1919-1998. Four time governor of Alabama. Most famous for his pro-segregation attitude and as a symbol for states' rights.
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Civil Rights Act 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the
Voting Rights Act 1965
Official end to all voter discrimination providing federal enforcement of the 15th Amendment.
March from Selma to Montgomery
A march that was attempted many times to protest voting rights, with many peaceful demonstrators injured and killed.
A long-time labor leader who organized and led the first important unskilled workers labor union, called in to represent union during sit-down strikes.
Militant civil rights leader
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest; "advocating self-rule for American blacks"
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination. Improving economic and educational opportunities…
Bakke vs. California
Supreme Court case dealing with affirmative action that ruled that affirmative action programs in principle are constitutional, but a strict quota system wasn't.
16th St. Baptist Church
Meeting place for the Montgomery bus boycott, was eventually bombed by the KKK and 4 little girls were killed.
1964 riots which started in an African-American ghetoo of Los Angeles and left 30 dead and 1,000 wounded. Riots lasted a week, and spurred hundreds more around the country.
27 protesters were shot and 14 of these killed by British troops in the Bogside area of Londonderry, Northern Ireland.
Roe vs. Wade
Assured women the right to legal abortions.
1921-2006. American feminist, activist and writer. Best known for starting the "Second Wave" of feminism through the writing of her book "The Feminine Mystique".
The Feminine Mystique
Book written by Betty Friedan in the 1960s.
National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
De Jure Segreation
Segregation that occurs because of laws or administrative decisions by public agencies.
de facto segregation
Segregation resulting from economic or social conditions or personal choice.
Equal Rights Advocates (ERA) is a non-profit women's rights organization that was founded in 1974. ERA is a legal organization dedicated to protecting and expanding economic and educational access and opportunities for women and girls.
Extended to women legal protections against discrimination.
Added to Education legislation in 1972. It prohibits exclusion of participation in sports based on gender. It provided opportunity for women to participate in high school and college athletics.