Level 45
Level 46

Collapse of the Medieval World


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Black Death
The bubonic plague that killed millions of Europeans in the 14th century.
Pandemic
The spread of a disease across a large area.
Giovanni Boccaccio
Famous citizen of Florence who wrote The Decameron
The Decameron
Book written by Giovanni Boccaccio describing the Black Death and its affects on the city and its people.
enclosure
act of acquiring land by putting a fence or barrier around it.
Hanseatic League
Formed in the late thirteenth century as a defensive association,imposed monopoly on cities trading in Baltic and North sea bu fourteenth century.
misogyny
hatred of women
Ciompi
the poorest workers
Statute of Laborers
Fixed prices and wages at level during 1347, before the plague.
Pastons
Great nobles of England. Defended their lands in court and against sieges.
100 Years' War [1328-1453]
War between England and France caused by land and royal succession disputes.
Flanders
Area that relied on Englands wool for its cloth-making industry.
Calais
English won possession after battle against English longbowmen and french knights.
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king
longbow
English defensive weapon that allowed English to win so many battles. More power and faster firing speed than crossbow.
gabelle
Tax on salt, essential to French royal finance
Taille
A tax levied on the value of a peasant's land or wealth.
War of the roses [1377-1485]
Fight between the Lancastrians and the Yorkists for the claim to the throne.
Burgundy
Region in central France that hosted tensions between the Armagnacs and the Burgundians
Doges of Venice
Heads of the government of Venice, who held the position for life.
Papal States
a region in central Italy ruled by the Pope
Pope Boniface VIII
Pope elected after Celestine V, issued many Bulls that caused turmoil between Church and Crown.
clericos laicos
Bull issued by Boniface VIII to forbade all clergy to make payments without papal permission.
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lay investiture
Unam Sanctum
Declared that Philip must submit to his authority or risk the damnation of his immortal soul.
papul bull
Papal letters with closed with a lead seal or bulla.
Avignon Papacy
Period when popes stayed in Avignon instead of continuing on to Rome.
Beguines
Allowed poor women who had been rejected by other Christian groups to become nuns
Beghards
Pious laymen
tertiaries
Widows or married people who worked in the world but spent time and money on charity and pious works
scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Roger Bacon
Franciscan who argued that knowledge can be verified only through experimental science
William of Ockham
Franciscan who argued that the articles of Christian faith could not be proved with logic and that they should be left to belief
Dante Aligheiri
Author of the Divine Comedy. Born in Florence, scholar, then exiled from Florence for political reasons
The Divine Comedy
Poem that ends with a happy ending, in conformity of the notion that a happy ending made any story a comedy.
Geoffrey Chaucer
Considered greatest English poet of the Middle Ages and the father of English Literature.
The Canterbury Tales
Collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer.
Christine de Pizan
Italian French author during late medieval times.
The City of Ladies
Christine de Pizan's most famous literary work.
Margery Kempe
Author during Medieval Ages
The Book of Margery Kempe
Book written by Margery Kempe, considered to be the first autobiography in English language.
Level 47