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The bubonic plague that killed millions of Europeans in the 14th century.
The spread of a disease across a large area.
Famous citizen of Florence who wrote The Decameron
Book written by Giovanni Boccaccio describing the Black Death and its affects on the city and its people.
act of acquiring land by putting a fence or barrier around it.
Formed in the late thirteenth century as a defensive association,imposed monopoly on cities trading in Baltic and North sea bu fourteenth century.
hatred of women
the poorest workers
Statute of Laborers
Fixed prices and wages at level during 1347, before the plague.
Great nobles of England. Defended their lands in court and against sieges.
100 Years' War [1328-1453]
War between England and France caused by land and royal succession disputes.
Area that relied on Englands wool for its cloth-making industry.
English won possession after battle against English longbowmen and french knights.
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king
English defensive weapon that allowed English to win so many battles. More power and faster firing speed than crossbow.
Tax on salt, essential to French royal finance
A tax levied on the value of a peasant's land or wealth.
War of the roses [1377-1485]
Fight between the Lancastrians and the Yorkists for the claim to the throne.
Region in central France that hosted tensions between the Armagnacs and the Burgundians
Doges of Venice
Heads of the government of Venice, who held the position for life.
a region in central Italy ruled by the Pope
Pope Boniface VIII
Pope elected after Celestine V, issued many Bulls that caused turmoil between Church and Crown.
Bull issued by Boniface VIII to forbade all clergy to make payments without papal permission.
Declared that Philip must submit to his authority or risk the damnation of his immortal soul.
Papal letters with closed with a lead seal or bulla.
Period when popes stayed in Avignon instead of continuing on to Rome.
Allowed poor women who had been rejected by other Christian groups to become nuns
Widows or married people who worked in the world but spent time and money on charity and pious works
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Franciscan who argued that knowledge can be verified only through experimental science
William of Ockham
Franciscan who argued that the articles of Christian faith could not be proved with logic and that they should be left to belief
Author of the Divine Comedy. Born in Florence, scholar, then exiled from Florence for political reasons
The Divine Comedy
Poem that ends with a happy ending, in conformity of the notion that a happy ending made any story a comedy.
Considered greatest English poet of the Middle Ages and the father of English Literature.
The Canterbury Tales
Collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer.
Christine de Pizan
Italian French author during late medieval times.
The City of Ladies
Christine de Pizan's most famous literary work.
Author during Medieval Ages
The Book of Margery Kempe
Book written by Margery Kempe, considered to be the first autobiography in English language.