Level 459
Level 460

Civil Rights Era & Vietnam

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Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal (violate 14th amendment granting blacks citizenship) and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States; an advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
earl warren
investigated kennedy's death
Little Rock Nine
Nine African-American students who would be admitted to a white school after integration ruling
Montgomery Bus Boycott
381 days where blacks carpool and busses almost go bankrupt until they are desegregated by Supreme Court
Martin Luther King Jr
An American pastor, activist, humanitarian, and leader in the African-American Civil Rights Movement.
Organization formed by MLK in 1957 to organize nonviolent resistance to achieve equality for African Americans
John F Kennedy
A very famous US president during the Cold War. He was killed by a man with a gun in the 1960's.
Michael Harrington
The Other America
The Other America
Michael Harrington, 1/5 the population was living below poverty line bc. declining opportunities for unskilled workers + blacks rejected for jobs, housing, educated.
Lyndon B. Johnson
Believed that only large-scale American invasion will save South Vietnam.
Economic Opportunity Act of 1964
An economic legislation that created many social programs to help provide funds for youth programs antipoverty measures, small-business loans, and job training; part of the Great Society.
The Great Society
A plan which included: the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Medicare, Medicaid, the War on Poverty, and programs offering federal aid for education.
A program created/founded in 1965 that provides hospital and low-cost medical insurance to most
Provides low-cost health insurance coverage to poor Americans no matter how old that cannot get private
Baker v. Carr
case that est. one man one vote. this decision created guidelines for drawing up congresional districts and guaranteed a more equitable system of representation to the citizens of each state
Gideon v. Wainwright
a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In the case, the Supreme Court
Miranda v Arizona
1966 Supreme Court decision that sets guidelines for police questioning of accused persons to
Organization founded in 1960 by college students to organize sit-ins and other nonviolent protests and offer young people a voice in the movement; became more radical in the late 1960s under the leadership of Stokely Carmichael
Freedom Rides
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
March on Washington
Was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in uS history and called for civil and scone ices rights for African Americans
Bloody Sunday
27 protesters were shot and 14 of these killed by British troops in the Bogside area of Londonderry, Northern Ireland.
James Meredith
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
A federal law that authorized federal action against segregation in public accommodations, public facilities, and employment.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
A law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African American suffrage. Under the law, hundreds of thousands of African Americans were registered and the number of African American elected officials increased dramatica…
Civil Rights Act of 1968
provided for equal housing opportunities regardless of race, creed, or national origin and made it a federal crime to "by force or by threat of force, injure, intimidate, or interfere with anyone ... by re…
affirmative action
A policy in educational admissions or job hiring that gives special attention or compensatory treatment to traditionally disadvantaged groups in an effort to overcome present effects of past discrimination. Improving economic and educational opportunities…
Malcolm X
Militant civil rights leader
Stokely Carmichael
Coined the phrase "black power" and led SNCC away from a nonviolent approach.
black power
A slogan used to reflect solidarity and racial consciousness, used by Malcolm X. It meant that equality could not be given, but had to be seized by a powerful, organized Black community., idea phrase…
Black Panthers
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest; "advocating self-rule for American blacks"
American Indian Movement. demanded greater rights for Native Americans and preservation of their traditions (i.e. restoring of burial grounds, cultures, and Indian pride in ancestry), use violence to make its point. Called for a ren…
Cesar Chavez
Organized Union Farm Workers (UFW); help migratory farm workers gain better pay & working conditions, Non-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from 1963-1970. Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike aga…
Dolores Huerta
taught farmworkers how to become citizens and how to vote; earned more money to buy food and clothing for them; worked with Cesar Chavez to form the National Farm Workers Association
an antiestablishment New Left group, founded in 1960, this group charged that corporations and large government institutions had taken over America; they called for a restoration of "participatory democracy" and greater individual freedom
New Left
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
Believed in anti-materalism, free use of drugs, they had a casual attitude toward sex and anti-conformity, (1960s) practiced free love and took drugs, flocked to San Francisco- low …
Silent Spring
A book written to voice the concerns of environmentalists. Launched the environmentalist movement by pointing out the effects of civilization development.
Rachel Carson
Silent Spring
An independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
Government agency in the Department of Labor to maintain a safe and healthy work environment
Clean Air Act of 1970
Law that charged the Department of Transportation with the responsibility of reducing automobile emissions.
National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
Equal Rights Amendment
A proposed constitutional amendment passed by Congress in 1972 stating that "equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the U.S. or by any state on account of sex."…
Phyllis Schlafly
warned that the amendment would upset the traditional roles of society and lead to the breakdown of the family.
Roe v. Wade
Controversial Supreme court case in 1973 that upheld a woman's right to abortion.
Title IX
Added to Education legislation in 1972. It prohibits exclusion of participation in sports based on gender. It provided opportunity for women to participate in high school and college athletics.
a period of slow economic growth and high unemployment (stagnation) while prices rise (inflation)
flexible response
President Kennedy's Cold War foreign policy
Bay of Pigs Invasion
an embarissing attempt to overthrow Fidel Castro that was organized by the US
Apollo Space Program
The purpose of this program was to land men on the moon. It suffered catastrophic setbacks, most notably a fire in January 1967 that killed three astronauts.
berlin wall
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Alliance for Progress
program under Kennedy and Johnson that increased US economic aid to Latin American nations that agreed to economic and social reforms. ($20 billion over 10 years).
Peace Corps
set up by JFK as an effort to help out third world countries
Cuban Missile Crisis
the US discovers nuclear missiles are on their way to cuba so they take action and the ships from russia turn around
South Vietnam
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
This law allowed the president to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the U.S. to prevent further aggression in Vietnam.
Operation rolling thunder
Bombing campaign in N. Vietnam on Ho Chi Minh Trail.
Living Room War
For the first time, Americans could sit in their living rooms and see the devastating effects of the war (body bags) on their televisions
Tet Offensive
Surprise attack by NVA and Viet Cong on major cities in the South during a Vietnamese holiday; military victory for US, but political victory for V.C; was the turning point in the war
Program started by Nixon to make South Vietnam responsible for its own defense while slowly pulling US troops out of Vietnam
Robert F. Kennedy
He ran for President in 1968; stirred a response from workers, African Americans, Hispanics, and younger Americans; would have captured Democratic nomination but was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan after victory speech during the California primary in June 1968.
Nickname for members of the, an outlandish protest group which supported nihilism, anarchy, and psychedelic drugs.
Richard Nixon
1969-1964; Republican; Ended Vietnam War; Recognized China/ Watergate scandal; First president to resign
Henry Kissinger
National security advisor for President Nixon; had secret negotiations with a North Vietnamese negotiationist Le Duct Tho
reducing of tensions between the USSR and the US which led to the end of the Cold War
negotiations between the US and the USSR which opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries'
Helsinki Accords
(GF) first signed by Canada, US, Soviet Union, and 32 others which pledged cooperation between East and West Europe and to reduce tension associated with the Cold War, eventually Communist Party died in East Europe in 1991
Kent State
Ohio college where an anti-war protest got way out of hand, the Nat'l Guard was called in and killed 3 students (innocent & unarmed,wounded 9) in idiscriminate fire of M-1 rifles
My Lai Massacre
American soldiers lined up Viet Cong (citizen) women, elders, and children and killed them
Pentagon Papers
Government documents that showed the public had been lied to about the status of the war in Vietnam
War Powers Act
Limits the presidents ability to send troops over seas
Agent Orange
spray on Vietnamese jungles; killed environment, making it harder for Viet Cong to hide; Caused cancer in many soldiers
Level 461