Level 55
Level 56

Florence & the Medici


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Greeks
Southern Italy (Magna Grecia)
Latins/Romans
South Central Italy
Etruscans
People who ruled much of central Italy including Rome, taughed Rome alphabet, engineering, and the use of the arch Romans drove out the ruler in 509BCE
Lex Juila 59 BC
Land reform act passed by Julius Caesar granting land to his war veterans
Flora
Roman goddess of Spring
Triumvirate
Octavian, Antony, Lepidus
Two main roads
Cardo maximus NS and Decumanus maximus EW
Origins of Christianity in Florence
Eastern merchants who settled outside the Eastern wall
250 AD
Emperor Decius ordered the persecution of Christians throughout the empire
San Miniato
The only Christian martyred in Florence
Edict of Milan (313)
Passed by Emperor Constantine, allowed Christianity to be practiced throughout the empire
San Lorenzo
Florence's first Cathedral
Geography, Language, Religion
Reasons for Devision of Roman Empire
VI-VIII centuries
Lombard Rule over Florence
Charlemagne
Frankish ruler in the 700s who expanded power over France, Germany, Austria, Italy, and northern Spain
Treaty of Verdun, 843
Divided Carolingian Empire between Charlemagne's grandsons Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German
Guelph
For the Pope
Ghibelline
For emperor
1172
Florence built the second set of walls to prevent Barbosa from entering the city
Dominican Order
Founded by St. Dominic of Guzman, fought against heresy. Santa Maria Novella was their first church in Florence.
Franciscan Order
Founded by St. Francis of Assisi, Santa Croce
Primo Popolo
1250-1260, Florence's first attempt at democracy
Podesta
Not Florentine and had a one year term
The Captain
Helped the Podesta, protector of guilds
Capitano
20 military companies underneath
City Developments (Primo Popolo)
City Crest, Santa Trinita Bridge, City hall, Gold Florin, Marzocco
gold Florin
First gold minted by a city that could be broken down into smaller unites, lily on one side, John the Baptist on the other
Manfred
Illegitimate son of Emperor Frederick II
1282-1302
The Second Democracy (dates)
Seven major guilds
Judges and notaries, Lana Guild, Calimala Guild, Cambio, Silk, Doctors, Furriers
Lana Guild
Refined and processed local wool
Calimala Guild
refined and processed foreign wool
Cambio
Banker's guild
Silk
Por Santa Maria Guild
Signoria
A council in Florence of 8 men representing the major guilds. Cosimo de Medicci controlled the guild
Ordinance of Justice
1293, all 14 minor guilds could participate in the government
Gonfaloniere
additional 7th prior to defend the "Popolo Magro"
Reaction to Ordinances of Justice
1295, Florence split into Blacks and Whites
1343-1382
The Third Democracy (dates)
Four Quarters of Florence
San Giovanni, Santa Maria Novella, Santa Croce, Santa Spirito
Popolo Magro
No rights of citizenship
Summer of 1378
Wealthy conservatives tried to overthrow the government.
Lorenzo Ghiberti beat Filippo Brunelleschi
Competition for North Doors of the Baptistery
Great Schism of Avignon
1378-1417, three popes until Martin V was elected as only pope
Cosimo il Vecchio
Becomes head of medici family after Giovanni di Bicci died
Great Council of the Church, 1439
Cosimo funded Council's move to Florence,West never sent help and Constantinople conquered Turks in 1453
Francesco Sforza
became Duke of Milan thanks to Cosimo.
Level 57