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during what centuries did the renaissance occur?
Why was Venice economically prosperous?
It was supported by overseas trade (with the middle east) and the diversion of the 4th Crusade to Constantinople
sworn associations of free men seeking complete economic and political independence from local nobles.
In Italy, who made up communes?
What did communes of merchant guilds do?
Maintained city walls, regulated trade, raised taxes, kept civil order
What was the urban nobility?
Italian feudal nobility fused with the commercial aristocracy
what was the popolo?
a political faction that disenfranchised and heavily taxed. They wanted equality of taxation. Used armed forces to try and overtake city-state governments
Were the popolo successful?
Yes, but only temporarily because they abused their power once they got it.
signori and oligarchies
by 1300, what had triumphed politically in Italy?
Venice, Milan, Florence, The papal States, The Kingdom of Naples
By the 15th century, what were he 5 dominating powers of Italy?
What is the significance of the Medici family?
It was a banking family who, in 1434-1494, ruled over Florence.
sì (yes in Italian)
Was Italy a target for invaders?
Why was Italy a target for invaders?
It was so divided. Rulers had imperialistic ambitions at each others expense, thus no alliances were formed.
He was the religious leader of Florence.
What was the significance of the Dominican friar Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498)?
Girolamo Savanarola (1452-1498)
What Dominican friar contributed to the fall of the Medici family?
How did Girolamo Savanarola die?
He was excommunicated by the pope (Alexander VI) and executed for his moral denunciations.
What was Girolamo Savanarola extremely critical of?
Pagan cultures, the undemocratic nature of the Medici rule and Pope Alexander VI
What French king invaded Italy in 1494?
King charles VIII, making Italy a battleground
The League of Cambrai
in 1508, what was created by King Charles' heir Louis XII with the pope and the german emperor Maximillian?
To strip Venice of all its possesions
What was the purpose of the League of cambrai?
When was Italy able to achieve unification?
What is usury?
lending money and charging interest.
Yes, it's condemned in biblical scriptures.
Was usury frowned upon by the church during the medieval era?
Was usury socially acceptable and widespread during the Renaissance?
Yes, this was one of the methods the Medici family used to gain power.
helped keep track of working hours and payment issues.
what effect did the introduction of the clock have on society?
What were popular jobs of women in the renaissance?
made ship sails in the Venetian Arsenal, laundresses, maids, textile industry, ferry service across the Rhone river, midwifery.
NO!!! they earned half as much
Did women earn as much money as men?
Were widows allowed to run their husbands establishments?
Yes, but the status of women declined nevertheless
Was rape considered a major crime in Venice from 1338-1358?
No, punishment for the rape of a marriageable girl was 6 months imprisonment.
Was sodomy a crime during the renaissance?
Yes, the penalty was burning while the penalty for robbery was mere mutilation.
Did lesbians exist during the Renaissance?
Of course, but people believed that there was "scientific" proof that women couldn't feel sexual pleasure without a man.
Did brothels exist during the Renaissance?
Yes and they were frequented by men. meanwhile, women were expected to remain virgins until marriage. DOUBLE STANDARD!!!
The enslavement of which group was common in central and eastern europe?
an unfree person of Slavic background.
Where does the word slave come from?
Genoa and Milan
Who dominated the Mediterranean slave trade during the 14th century?
Why were Africans sold as slaves to the Portuguese?
1492 King of the Congo wanted European goods and weapons (he had also converted to Christianity at that point.)
What is French Absolutism?
The realization that government was more important that the church
Who were conversos? (In spain during the spanish inquisition)
Spanish: "converted"), one of the Spanish Jews who adopted the Christian religion after a severe persecution in the late 14th and early 15th centuries and the expulsion of religious Jews from Spain in the 14…
England, Spain, France
Which nations had centralized governments?