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Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility
Due to his victory, he is recognized as one of the first to have successfully fought back Spanish authority. A monument to him stands in Mactan on the site where Magellan was killed.
was Eric the Red's son. He was probably the first European to set foot on North America. He founded a Viking colony called Vinland in North America.
sent from Spain by Isabelle and Ferdinand to find Asia
Established by Europeans by the late 16th century; based on control of seas including the Atlantic and Pacific; created an international exchange of foods, diseases, and manufactured products. Early on was based on SILVER not gold.
Was an encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1766 by some of the most prominent philosophers. It originally consisted of 28 volumes and covered everything then known about the sciences, technology, & history…
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America, produced 80% of all Peruvian silver
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control. However the Spanish also imposed it on the Indians in o…
means "Land of Wine", given by Leif Ericsson to the present-day Canadian province of Newfoundland
Eric the Red
Was a Viking who found and named Greenland. Even thought this was a cold land he named it Greenland to encourage people to come to this area to settle. Father of Leif Ericsson
Cape of Good Hope
Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.
sailed from Spain in 1515
Strait of Magellan
The strait separating South America from Tierra del Fuego and other islands south of the continent, found by Magellan at the tip of South America during his voyage around the globe
Tierra del Fuego
The large island, maybe archipelago whose name means "Land of Fire". it is located near the southern tip of Chile, but administered by Argentina and Chile.
Holy Roman emperor and king of Spain as Charles I . He summoned the Diet of Worms (and the Council of Trent, He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Council of Trent
The congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
The Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. Thi…
English explorer and admiral who was the first Englishman to circumnavigate the globe and who helped to defeat the Spanish Armada
Dutch East India Company
Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in Asia; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed until the British took over.
British East India Company
A joint stock company that controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. This company controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years.
Battle of Lepanto
A battle in which Spain defeated the Turkish navy off the coast of Greece-ended Ottoman threat in Mediterranean, Turkish sea power was destroyed in 1571 by a league of Christian nations organized by the P…
One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty, controlled by the Porteguese.
Nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services such as shipping; exported manufactured goods for raw materials.
economic nationalism for the purpose of building a wealthy and powerful state. It enriches the country by restraining imports and encouraging exports. The goal was supposedly to achieve a "favorable" balance of trade that w…
(in Latin America) A man of mixed race
This is the passage that many European explorers attempted but never succeeded to navigate to reach other nations more quickly, the Engish thought they might have found it by discovering the St. Lawrence River,…
Old capital of Guatemala, noble and loyal of , was a British West Indian island colony used for sugar export in the age of imperalism.
an Islamic imperial power that ruled a large portion of Indian subcontinent which began in 1526, invaded and ruled most of Hindustan (South Asia) by the late 17th and early 18th centuries, and ended in the mid-19th century.
Vasco de Balboa
Spanish explorer who discovered Panama in 1513
New World conqueror; Spanish conqueror who crushed the Inca civilization in Peru; took gold, silver and enslaved the Incas in 1532.
Was the last emperor of the Inca Empire.He was invited to a dinner and kidnapped by fought unsuccessfully against Pizarro and spent the rest of his life in captivity. the Inca empire raised a l…
The capital of Peru, founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1535.
The FIRST Land claimed for Spain by Columbus. Renamed "Holy Savior", now the capital and largest city of El Salvador
French colonies in Canada and elsewhere; extended along the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes and down into the Mississippi River valley system, had capital in Quebec, founded 1608. Fell to the British in 1…
seven years war
another name for the french and indian war
Treaty of Paris of 1763
Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. Fr…
Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rig…
The bloodless accession of William and Mary to the throne of England after James II fled to England
Roanoke's colony leader who returned to England for more food and tools--when he finally returned to Roanoke the colony had vanished--the only clue he found of Roanoke or the "Lost colony" was the native american tribes name "CROATAN"
Established in 1587. Called the Lost Colony. It was financed by Sir Walter Raleigh, and its leader in the New World was John White. All the settlers disappeared, and historians still don't know what became of them.
Sir Walter Raleigh
English courtier, navigator, colonizer, and writer. A favorite of Elizabeth I, he introduced tobacco and the potato to Europe. Convicted of treason by James I, he was released for another expedition to Guiana and executed after its failure.
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus.
Dutch descended colonist living in South Africa. Also called Afrikaners.
Headquarters of British East India Company in Bengal in Indian subcontinent; located on Ganges; captured in 1756 during early part of Seven Years' War; later became administrative center for all of Bengal.
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death, Was a despotic ruler whose strict laws would ultimately le…
Black Hole of Calcutta
British trading post at Calcutta lay within the important Indian state of Bengal, who's troops(allied with the French) captured Calcutta and imprisoned many British citizens, locking them up overnight in a small Jail cell…
What was the colonial name of Sri Lanka? gained BY THE British in the Early Modern Era (about 1756) fro the British. It followed after a series of wins against the French in India.
A short political treatise about political power how the ruler should gain, maintain, and increase it. Machiavelli explores the problems of human nature and concludes that human beings are selfish and out to advance their own interests
Italian Renaissance writer, described government(practically) in the way it actually worked (ruthless). He wrote The Prince (the end justifies the mean).Florentine statesman and historian, was reacting against Humanist of the time who only seeme…
A mountain that Francesco Petrarch climbed in Southern France, and said he used as a symbol of what he could actually accomplish.
Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages, Renaissance.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter h…
Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; influenced by earlier Italian Renaissance; centered in France, the Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than in Italy, Christian Humanism criticizing the church & society, Painting/ Woodcuts/Literature
Italian painter and art historian wrote "The Lives of the Artists". Massive patronage of the arts came from this and was lead by families like the Medici's and also the churches, who saw ar…
18th century German enlightenment scholar who greatly influenced Modern art history by shifting away from Vasari's biographical emphasis to a rigorous study of stylistic development as related to historical context.
Jan Van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting,characterized by brilliant coloring and minute realistic detail, include Arnolfini and His Wife, Actually would influence Grant Wood centuries later.
King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman emperor in order to distract his main r…
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form
The main character in Miguel de Cervantes' book about the changing times in the early 1600's. He was a man who did not like how the Middle Ages were ending and people were becoming …
German goldsmith and printer who is credited with inventing movable printing type in Europe abround 1439. Created the 42-line Gutenberg Bible, noted for its high aesthetic and technical quality. His printing technology was a…
European Style Family
Originated in 15th century among peasants and artisans of western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on the nuclear family, and a large minority who never married.
a German monk, Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of a reform movement in 16th century Christianity, subsequently known as the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punish…
Codification in 1530 of Luther's doctrines as established since time of Diet of Worms and subsequent confinement at Wartburg, 1521-22. Included priesthood of all believers, two sacraments, authority of the bible, justification by faith al…
The church on which Luther posted his 95 theses
Luther's friend who helped with the codification of the Augsburg Confession, big supporter of education and literacy, Arrived in Wittenberg in 1518 at the age of 21 to teach greek and Hebrew.
General wave of religious dissent against the Catholic church; generally held to have begun with Martin Luther's attack on Catholic beliefs in 1517; included many many MANY varieties of religious belief
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head, at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death
King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Ch…
Queen of England in 1558-1603 after her father Henry VIII died.
French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America
the Doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul.
Restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation (16th century); established councils(Like council of Trent) that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs.
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534. They played an important part in the Catholic Reformation and helped create conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe.
Founded the Society of Jesus, resisted the spread of Protestantism, wrote Spiritual Exercises.Was a Spanish soldier whose leg had been shattered fighting from Charles V against the French. He said that salvation could be achi…
Edict of Nantes
In 1685 Louis revoked the?
Thirty Years War
War within the Holy Roman Empire between German Protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain; ended in 1648 after great destruction with Treaty of Westphalia, destroyed …
English civil war
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king, Think King Charl…
The irst Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris, also devised Edict of Nantes.
King Charles I
The English monarch who was beheaded by Puritans (see English Civil War) who then established their own short-lived government ruled by Oliver Cromwell (Mid 1600s).
leader of the Roundheads in the English Civil War that overthrew Charles I
The growing class of factory and railroad workers, miners, and urban wage earners.
During Cromwell's reign, this group wanted voting rights for all men, the church and state separate, alcoholic prohibition, and universal male suffrage. More radical than radical Cromwell, and crushed by Cromwell. Example of how revolutiona…
Reflected resentment against the poor, uncertainties about religious truth; resulted in death of over 100,000 Europeans b/w 1590 and 1650; particularly common in Protestant areas
new way of thinking about the natural world, old assumptions with new theories
Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
Copernicus published his book the year of his death fearing ridicule, Destroyed the notion for believing in crystal spheres capable of moving the stars around the earth.
A mathematician who recognized that the planets did not revolve around the sun in circles, but ellipises (ovals).
Influenced by Copernicus; Built observatory and collected data on the locations of stars and planets for over 20 years; His limited knowledge of mathematics prevented him from making much sense out of the data.Kepler was one of his assistants
Florentine scientist that designed telescope, placed under house arrest by pope for revolutionary astronomical theories
Discovered the circulation of blood and the role of the heart in propelling it. Developed an accurate theory of how the heart and circulatory system operated. He speculated that humans and animals reproduced through the joining of an egg.
developed and urged scientists to follow the scientific method experiment and then draw conclusions
He developed analytical geometry; relied on math and logic; he believed that everything should be doubted until proven by reason; believed that scientists needed to reject old assumptions and teachings, Cogito Ergo Sum
A volume from Instauratio Magna that was published in 1620. Translates to New Method of Acquiring Knowledge . In Sir Francis Bacon insisted on use of the inductive method. Should proceed from the partic…
(Great Renewal) written by Sir Francis Bacon in the early 17th century. It was to contain several volumes in which Bacon called for a new start in science and civilization. He only actually completed…
British scientist who defined the laws of motion, discovered gravity, experimented with optics, invented differential calculus and wrote "Principia"
In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton wrote this. It was filled with contributions to many areas of science, and included the three well-known laws of motion. NOT the one by Whitehead and Russel/.
the belief that God had established natural laws in creating the universe, but the role of divine intervention in human affairs was minimal, believed in rationalism and trusted human reason to solve many problem…
This enormous, ostentatious monument to the power of the French Monarchy, built by Louis XIV over a long period of time, served as a manifestation of the power of absolute monarchy. Meant to impress…
King Louis XIV
Ruled with an iron fist for 60 years as the self proclaimed "Sun King" of France, and always wanted war. Believed in Divine Right of Kings, in which God chose him to rule over…
monarchy in which the king or queen has unlimited power
Originated in England(Glorious Revolution) and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significant legislative powers in parliaments.
Fredrick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessors; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy, abolished the us…
a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790), wrote "wealth of Nations"
The Wealth of Nations
A book written by Scottish economist Adam Smith, promoted laissez-faire, free-market economy, and supply-and-demand economics
French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France, encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, literature, supported education for women, build schools and hospitals and museums. Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
argued women need education to become virtuous and useful
British Whig leader who was cautious about the French Revolution. Saw that they needed to keep thei present political structure and seek to achieve evolutionary rather than revolutionary change.
refers to the spread of deep interest in acquiring material goods and services spreading below elite levels, along with a growing economy capacity to afford some of these goods, can be found in several premo…
jean jacques rousseau
believed in the social contract, A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
Vindication of the Rights of Women
Mary Wollstonecraft's treatise of 1792, in which she argued that reason was the basis of moral behavior in all human beings, not just in men. She concluded that women should have equal rights with…
Reforms on The Revolution in France
A treatise by Edmund Burke which largely defended inherited thrones, the aristocracy, while condemning revolutions as radical, dangerous and useless, was very conservative. Attacked by Rousseau, Wollstonecraft, and Paine.
Vindication of the Rights of Man
A political pamphlet, written by the 18th-century British feminist Mary Wollstonecraft, which attacks aristocracy and advocates republicanism. Wollstonecraft's was the first response in a pamphlet war sparked by the publication of Edmund Burke's Reflection…
Journal des Dames
French journal written originally by a man for women, but taken over by Madame de Beaumere. In Germany a similar publication suggested that men were partly to blame for women's lowly position in society.
Madame de Beaumere
Took over the direction of the French Journal des Dames from a man.
A Compilation of scientific and philosophical findings that was popularized during the enlightenment and found a wide audience.
Book written by Samuel Richardson which focused on a servant girl and her master; virtue is rewarded in the novel , This epistolary form became a popular technique in literature during this time period
A major 18th century writer best known for his 3 epistolary novels: "Pamela: Or, Virtue Rewarded," "Clarissa: Or the History of a Young Lady," and "Sir Charles Grandison."
Is a period of the history of globalization roughly spanning the years between 1600 and 1800. First introduced by historians A. G. Hopkins and Christopher Bayly, the term describes the phase of increasing trade l…
The notion, often associated with Rousseau, that non-Western or "primitive" people are actually happier and more virtuous than Westerners. Based on the idea that humans are free and equal in "a state of nature"…
The family members were wealthy politicians, businessmen, and patrons of the arts who influenced both individuals and the bigger picture, in Florence and all of Europe. Cosimo de Medici ruled Florence for five years a…
Italian statesman and scholar who supported many artists and humanists including Michelangelo and Leonardo and Botticelli (1449-1492)
Cosimo de Medici
A wealthy Florentine and an astute statesman, who brought power back to Florence in 1434 when he ascended to power; controlled the city behind the scenes, He skillfully manipulated the constitution and influencing elections; thr…
A council in Florence of 8 men representing the major guilds. Cosimo de Medicci controlled the guild