Level 60
Level 61

Scientific Revolution & the Enlightenment


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Scientific Revolution
new way of thinking about the natural world, old assumptions with new theories
scientific method
logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas
dissection
Cutting technique used to separate body parts for study
anatomy
Science of body structures and the relationships revealed through dissection and imaging
heliocentric model
Model that was proposed by Copernicus that put the Sun at the center of the universe.
geocentric model
Model proposed by Ptolemy that places the Earth at the center of the universe.
absolute monarchy
monarchy in which the king or queen has unlimited power
jean jacques rousseau
believed in the social contract, A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
baron de montesquieu
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving free…
Thomas Hobbes
Hobbes wrote that without government, life would be poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Presented the idea of the social contract. Leviathan
John Locke
Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rig…
Bishop Jacques Bossuet
This bishop and supporter of absolute monarchy under Louis XIV argued that because God established kings and endowed them with power, they were responsible to no one and could not be challenged (divine right)
King Louis XIV
Ruled with an iron fist for 60 years as the self proclaimed "Sun King" of France, and always wanted war. Believed in Divine Right of Kings, in which God chose him to rule over…
The Enlightenment
educated Americans were attracted to this European movement in literature and philosophy, believed the "darkness" of past ages could be corrected by the use of human reasoning
Bill of Rights
Recognized by William and Mary which limited the powers of the monarchy, prohibited Catholics from occupying he throne and guaranteed the role of Parliament in government
salons
philosophies would meet
mary wollstonecraft
argued women need education to become virtuous and useful
voltaire
used satire against opponents, (1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Cesare Beccaria
Fair and equal treatment of prisoners/punishments should fit crimes. Wrote " On Crimes and Punishments".
Level 62