Level 61
Level 62

Enlightenment


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minuet
a slow, graceful dance that involves much bowing and toe-pointing
burg
town
Bourgeoisie
Middle Class, merchants, doctors, lawyers, teachers
Bourgeois
Of or characteristic of the middle class, typically with reference to its perceived materialistic values or conventional attitudes
isaac newton
brought bacon and descartes views together into a single theory of motion
plague
a disease that is deadly and spreads rapidly
gravity
the force that pulls objects in the earth's atmosphere toward the earth
Copernicus
Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
Galileo
Florentine scientist that designed telescope, placed under house arrest by pope for revolutionary astronomical theories
Principia Mathematica
In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton wrote this. It was filled with contributions to many areas of science, and included the three well-known laws of motion. NOT the one by Whitehead and Russel/.
René Descartes
The father of modern philosophy
Philosophy
The study of human thought about the meaning of life and the natural world
Descartes's book
Discourse of Method
I think, therefore I am.
Descartes's conclusion in which he believed simply having thoughts means you exist
Queen Christina of Sweden
A student of Descartes
Stuarts
believed in the divine right of kings
leviathan
expressed the views that all men were naturally selfish and wicked
Thomas Hobbes
Hobbes wrote that without government, life would be poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Presented the idea of the social contract. Leviathan
state of nature
A condition in which there is no government.
pessimist
someone who believes the worst will happen
absolute monarchy
monarchy in which the king or queen has unlimited power
Behemoth
published three years after Hobbes's death
King Charles II
formerly Prince Charles; former pupil of Thomas Hobbes
Authoritarian
Favoring or enforcing strict obedience to authority
John Locke
Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rig…
Oxford University
college attended by John Locke
Essay Concerning Human Understanding
Locke's book; states that we are blank slates at birth, acquiring knowledge through experience
tabula rasa
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas.
Glorious Revolution
The bloodless accession of William and Mary to the throne of England after James II fled to England
radical
What type of reforms are these an example of? spiritualism, communitarianism, sylvester graham and grahams, women's rights
Bastille
symbolic start to revolution on July 14th 1789, stormed Bastille for weapons
Charles de Secondat
(Baron de Montesquiei) believed that France was in troubleand most people suffered poverty and injustice
Clergy
Roman Catholic Church, 1% of population
The Persian Letters
A collection of letters from Usbek and Rica (Baron de Montesquieu) that criticized the French ruling class
The Spirit of Laws
Book which praised the British for limiting the power of the monarch and protecting rights of the people (Montesquiei)
Separation of Powers
The sharing of the government's power; the power is divided equally between the three separate branches of the government.
voltaire
used satire against opponents, (1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
pseudonym
a "pen name," that is, a name used by an author in place of his or her real name
limited monarchy
government in which a ruler shares his or her power with another governing body such as Parliament
philosophes
social critics in france
censorship
the act of removing or holding back anything thought not right for people to see or hear
encyclopedia
books to help scholars learn
Thomas Jefferson
drafted the Constitution; shared Locke's ideas
Benjamin Franklin
American philosophe
Poor Richard's Almanack
the series of publications aimed at helping people improve themselves; a cross between an encyclopedia and a journal
diplomat
A person who works for a govenment and goes to other countries to talk about politics and business.
James Madison
father of the Constitution;4th President of the United States; member of the Continental Congress and rapporteur at the Constitutional Convention in 1776; helped frame the Bill of Rights (1751-1836)
Merci
thanks in French
executive, legislative and judicial branches
branches of government in the U.S. that hold each other accountable and maintain balance
enlightenment
a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems
Social Contract
An implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection. Theories of a social contract became popular in the 16th, 1…
Constitutional Monarchy
government established under William and Mary after they signed the English Bill of Rights (their power was limited)
Centralized Government
A government in which power is concentrated in a central authority to which local governments are subject
baron de montesquieu
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving free…
jean jacques rousseau
believed in the social contract, A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
Cesare Beccaria
Fair and equal treatment of prisoners/punishments should fit crimes. Wrote " On Crimes and Punishments".
Direct Democracy
A type of government where people rule directly than through representatives though they agree to give up some of their freedom in favor of the common good.
mary wollstonecraft
argued women need education to become virtuous and useful
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790), wrote "wealth of Nations"
Level 63