Level 63
Level 64

Roots of the Enlightenment

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Age of Reason
Another name for the Enlightenment
baron de montesquieu
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving free…
Bill of Rights
Recognized by William and Mary which limited the powers of the monarchy, prohibited Catholics from occupying he throne and guaranteed the role of Parliament in government
Cesare Beccaria
Fair and equal treatment of prisoners/punishments should fit crimes. Wrote " On Crimes and Punishments".
Constitutional Monarchy
government established under William and Mary after they signed the English Bill of Rights (their power was limited)
a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems
natural rights
life, liberty, and right to own property
Thomas Hobbes
Clear and ordered thinking.
Religious Tolerance
The acceptance of different religious beliefs and customs
philosophies would meet
Separation of Powers
The sharing of the government's power; the power is divided equally between the three separate branches of the government.
Social Contract
An implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection. Theories of a social contract became popular in the 16th, 1…
Thomas Hobbes
Hobbes wrote that without government, life would be poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Presented the idea of the social contract. Leviathan
used satire against opponents, (1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Level 65