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Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment


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Events leading to the scientific revolution
1. Discovery of the New World 2. Invention of the Printing Press 3. Rivalry among Nation-States 4. Reformation 5. Renaissance Humanism
scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Copernicus
Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
Brahe
Amassed nearly 20 years worth of astrological data that eventually led to the disproval of the geocentric theory.
Kepler
German astronomer and mathematician. Considered the founder of modern astronomy, he formulated three laws to describe how the planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits.
Principia
Newton's book which established the law of universal gravitation and banished Ptolemy's laws and universe for good.
Issac Newton
British scientist who defined the laws of motion, discovered gravity, experimented with optics, invented differential calculus and wrote "Principia"
Galileo
Florentine scientist that designed telescope, placed under house arrest by pope for revolutionary astronomical theories
Bacon
English statesman and philosopher precursor of British empiricism; advocated inductive reasoning (1561-1626)
Descartes
Wrote Discourse on Method. Believed in Cartesian Dualism where the body can be doubted, but the mind can't so the two must be radically different. Used deductive reasoning (reasoning through previously know facts) to come to conclusions.
Pascal
French mathematician and philosopher and Jansenist invented an adding machine; contributed (with Fermat) to the theory of probability (1623-1662)
Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679), wrote Leviathan
leviathan
expressed the views that all men were naturally selfish and wicked
absolutism
The theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally.
Locke
English empiricist philosopher who believed that all knowledge is derived from sensory experience (1632-1704)
Social Contract
An implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection. Theories of a social contract became popular in the 16th, 1…
Two Treatises on Government
Said human nature lived free and had the natural rights of life, liberty, and property. Government was created in order to protect these rights and if the government failed to do so it was…
tabula rasa
John Locke's concept of the mind as a blank sheet ultimately bombarded by sense impressions that, aided by human reasoning, formulate ideas.
immanuel kant
(1724-1804) German philosopher who thought that the mind comes into the world with certain inborn assumptions or predilections with which it molds experience.
philosophes
social critics in france
voltaire
used satire against opponents, (1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755), wrote spirit of laws
Checks and Balances
Not wanting any ONE branch to get too powerful, the Founding Fathers gave each branch certain ways to limit the power of the other two.
diderot
created the encyclopedia
Rousseau
(1712-1778) process of civilization and enlightenment had corrupted human nature, evil of the world founded upon uneven distribution of property, real purpose of society was to nurture better people, wrote the Social Contract
general will
According to Rousseau the general will is sacred and absolute, reacting the common interests of the people who have displaced the monarch as the holder of ultimate power.
Beccaria
(1738-1794) wrote 'On Crimes and Punishments', wanted laws to conform to rational laws of nature
Hume
Scottish philosopher whose sceptical philosophy restricted human knowledge to that which can be perceived by the senses (1711-1776)
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790), wrote "wealth of Nations"
salons
philosophies would meet
Wollstonecraft
English writer and early feminist who denied male supremacy and advocated equal education for women, wrote "Vindication of the Rights of Women"
Enlightened Absolutist
Absolutist monarchs who incorporated Enlightenment ideas without giving up their control
Junkers
Prussian officers who were from noble Prussian families. Promoted on merit rather than wealth or social standing
Frederick William
Known as the Great Elector, this man was the first Hohenzollern leader, to move toward absolute monarchy and built a militaristic state in Prussia/ Brandenburg.
Frederick I
son of Frederick William who in 1701 became the first king of Prussia (1657-1713)
frederick the great
(1712-1786), King of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. Enlightened despot who enlarged Prussia by gaining land from Austria when Maria Theresa became Empress.
Maria Theresa
(r. 1740-1780) maintained her throne by giving Hungary Magyars prominence, reorganized army, promoted commerce and agriculture
War of the Austrian Succession
Prussian and Austria fought over Silesia and most of the rest of Europe took sides
Pragmatic Sanction
Issued by Charles VI of Austria in 1713 to assure his daughter Maria Theresa gained the throne.
Diplomatic Revolution
the time of changing alliances between the war of Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War, France allied with Austria and Russia, while Prussia is allied with Great Britain
seven years war
another name for the french and indian war
Ivan the Terrible
first czar of Russia, known for cruelty and being constantly at war
Romanov
the Russian imperial line that ruled from 1613 to 1917
Peter the Great
First czar of Russia and a member of the Romanov Family. (r. 1689-1725)
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, literature, supported education for women, build schools and hospitals and museums. Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
Walpole
Englishman and Whig statesman who (under George I) was effectively the first British prime minister (1676-1745)
Tories
a political party that supported James II
Whigs
a political party that opposed James II
Edmund Burke
British Whig leader who was cautious about the French Revolution. Saw that they needed to keep thei present political structure and seek to achieve evolutionary rather than revolutionary change.
Louis XV
grandson of Louis XIV and king of France from 1715 to 1774 who led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War (1710-1774)
parlements
15 sovereign courts in the french judicial system that checked the king's ability to tax and legislate arbitrarily
Level 71