Level 70
Level 71

Scientific Revolution & Enlightenment


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Birth
The Scientific Revolution marked the _______ of modern science
Theories
The explanations scientists develop to explain observed facts are called theories.
Ptolemy wrote about...
Astronomy, geography, and logic
galileo galilei
built his own telescope and used it to study the heavens
Nicholas Copernicus
Mathematician who developed a heliocentric conception of the universe.
John Locke
Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rig…
baron de montesquieu
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving free…
voltaire
used satire against opponents, (1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1778) French writer and Enlightenment philosopher who wrote a book called, The Social Contract, where he stated that people were basically good, and that society, and its unequal distribution of wealth, were the caus…
Balance of Power Theory
Equal power would prevent one branch from becoming too powerful
Mercantilism
economic nationalism for the purpose of building a wealthy and powerful state. It enriches the country by restraining imports and encouraging exports. The goal was supposedly to achieve a "favorable" balance of trade that w…
geocentric theory
earth stands sill while the moon, the sun, and all other planets rotate around the earth in a perfect circle
Ptolemy
Astronomer-mathematician who stated that the earth was the center of the universe
Scientific Revolution
new way of thinking about the natural world, old assumptions with new theories
heliocentric theory
everything revolves around the sun
Galileo
Florentine scientist that designed telescope, placed under house arrest by pope for revolutionary astronomical theories
scientific method
logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas
Johannes Kepler
A mathematician who recognized that the planets did not revolve around the sun in circles, but ellipises (ovals).
rene descartes
geometry
isaac newton
brought bacon and descartes views together into a single theory of motion
heliocentrism
sun is the center of the universe, first proposed by Nicolas copernicus
reason
Clear and ordered thinking.
natural rights
life, liberty, and right to own property
constitutional monarch
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.
absolute power
Sovereignty; complete power and rule
legacy of enlightenment
changed views on government; no need for absolute rulers; should not have unequal social classes.
leviathan
expressed the views that all men were naturally selfish and wicked
Liberty
_______ Party- in response to Garrisonism, free slave AND womens rights
intolerance
A lack of acceptance of another person's opinions, beliefs, or actions.
satire
a style of writing that pokes fun at people or society
The social contract
People give up some freedom for the common good. People must give consent or permission to be governed. this ideas was published by Rosseau
Quote by Voltaire.
I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.
New idea is government's power comes from the consent or permission to be governed.
Old idea bout the right to govern is: A monarch's rule is justified divine rights. What is the new idea?
natural rights--life, liberty, and property
What are the major ideas of The Enlightenment?
secular
Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matters. during the Enlightenment began to question practices of the church and some religious teachings.
heliocentric
A model of the solar system in which Earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
geocentric
A belief that the Earth is the center of the universe
Sir Isaac Newton
English scientist, mathematician, and philosopher; published theory of gravity and the three laws of motion
Law of Gravity
Newton's idea that "what goes up, must come down"
Level 72