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the selling or buying of a position in a Christian church.
relating to a style of church architecture that developed in medieval Europe, featuring ribbed vaults, stained glass windows, flying buttresses, pointed arches, and tall spires.
Pope Urban II
responding to an appeal from Byzantine emperor Alexius, he issued a call for what he termed a "holy war," a Crusade, to gain control of the Holy Land.
The wars fought by Christians to take control of the Holy Land in the east from the Muslims are called the _______.
the most famous Muslim leader of the 1100s. His own people considered him a most devout man. Even the Christians regarded him as honest and brave. He conquered Jerusalem in 1187.
Richard the Lion-Hearted
English king who led the Third Crusade in an attempt to regain the Holy Land from Saladin, leaving others to rule England in his place.
Christian leaders' effort to retake the Iberian peninsula from the Moors
church court that rid Spain of Jews and Moors as they were heretics who didn't follow the catholic doctrine as ordered by Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain
having religious beliefs that differed from the teachings of the Church/the people holding such beliefs.
a system of farming developed in medieval Europe, in which farmland was divided into three fields of equal size and each of these was successively planted with a winter crop, planted with a spring crop, and left unplanted.
William of Tyre
a chronicler of the Crusades, he was a Christian bishop who drew upon eyewitness accounts of the capture of Jerusalem by Crusaders.
A group of people doing the same job; this group stays business because they set prices and standard of quality
the expansion of trade and business that transformed European economies during the 16th and 17th centuries.
a medieval merchant-class town dweller.
The everyday language spoken by the people as opposed to Latin.
scholar who argued that most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument.
scholars who gathered and taught at medieval European universities.
William the Conqueror
an English king who began the practice of feudalism in England
Eleanor of Aquitaine
powerful French duchess; divorced the king of France to marry Henry II of England and ruled all of England and about 1/2 of France with him
descendant of William the Conqueror who added to English lands in both Normandy and England, and added to these holdings by marrying Eleanor of Aquitaine from France.
A system of law based on precedent and customs.
Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility
A legislature consisting of the house of lords and the houese of commons, half were elected while half were appointed
first ruler from the Capetian dynasty that ruled and expanded France
one of the most powerful Capetian kings, he increased the territory of France by seizing Normandy, tripled the lands under his direct control, and became the first French king to be more powerful than any of his vassals.
the legislative body before the French Revolution, made up of representatives from the Three Estates whose original purpose was to give advice to the kind and approve new taxes
city to which pope Clement V moved from Rome and where popes would live there for the next 69 years, badly weakening the Church.
The appearance of two, and at times three, rival popes between 1378 and 1415.
an Englishman who preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the true head of the Church, he believed that the clergy should not own land or wealth, and taught that the Bible alone—not…
Czechoslovakian religious reformer who anticipated the Reformation
a deadly disease that spread across Asia and Europe in the mid-14th century, killing millions of people.
Hundred Years' War
a conflict in which England and France battled on French soil on and off from 1337 to 1453.
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king