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during Reconstruction, white southerners who resisted change
People who wanted to make extreme changes.
this group supported both the radicals and the conservatives depending on the issue.
Activities aimed against, or counter to the revolution, mostly clergy and nobles of the Old Regime.
The Draft, a list of the young men that are ready to be enlisted in the army.
Napoleon's first wife
This enormous, ostentatious monument to the power of the French Monarchy, built by Louis XIV over a long period of time, served as a manifestation of the power of absolute monarchy. Meant to impress…
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
A document created by the National Assembly during the French Revolution that guaranteed certain human rights. The document was influenced by the Declaration of Independence
1799, A sudden overthrow of the government by Napoleon.
Libertyy, Equality, Fraternity
Call of French Revolutionaries
Tenis Court Oath
taken by members of the third estate a pledge to not disband until a constitution was written
During the Industrial Revolution, it was the consolidation of many small farms into one large farm, which created a labor force as many people lost their homes.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
designed a steam engine that could power the new machines. Steam soon replaced water as the major source of power.
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
Internal combustion engine
1. An internal combustion engine in which ignition occurs by injecting fuel in a cylinder where air has been compressed and is at a very high temperature, causing self-ignition
internal combustion engine
an engine that burns fuel inside cylinders within the engine
an American inventor, developed a boat pow- ered by a steam engine
Invented the telegraph
invented the cotton gin
developed the lightbulb
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone
Invented the radio
1818-1883. 19th century philosopher, political economist, sociologist, humanist, political theorist, and revolutionary. Often recognized as the father of communism. Analysis of history led to his belief that communism would replace capitalism as it replaced feudal…
This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.
Government leaders, not citizens, control industry and wealth.
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show life as it is rather than life as it should be
19th century artistic movement that appealed to emotion rather than reason
Children were viewed as laborers throughout the 19th century. Many children worked on farms, small businesses, mills and factories.
thinkers of the Enlightenment who believed in justice, tolerance, and freedom
a monarch whose power is not limited by a representative assembly
most famous philosophes
Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu
used satire against opponents, (1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
(1712-1778) process of civilization and enlightenment had corrupted human nature, evil of the world founded upon uneven distribution of property, real purpose of society was to nurture better people, wrote the Social Contract
kings of France, also the family name of the line of kings who had ruled France for 200 years
Treaty of Alliance
signed by France and the U.S. as an agreement to help each other fight against Great Britain
Churchman or clergy
one-tenth of a person's income, paid to support a church
the working class, poorly paid, very little food (similar to peasants); also known as the sansculottes
an attendant at court, usually an aristocrat
Sun King successfully surprised discontent among the nobility and landowners through absolute monarchy and strict catholic rule. Believed in religious uniformity and helped to suppress the Jansenists
Louis XIV (fourteenth)
I am the state.
Palace of Versaille
built by Louis XIV, residence of Bourbon kings; contained 1,000-plus rooms
grandson of Louis XIV and king of France from 1715 to 1774 who led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War (1710-1774)
French and Indian war
War in North America between French and British. (aided by N.A.) British conquered.
the title given to the prince who is next in line to inherit the French throne
Le Petit Trianon
a small mansion on the grounds of Versailles where Antoinette would pretend to be a peasant
the legislative body before the French Revolution, made up of representatives from the Three Estates whose original purpose was to give advice to the kind and approve new taxes
A clergyman who wrote a famous pamphlet about how the Third Estate is the true political representation of France and how it needs to be given more power.
Urban workers; part of the Third Estate
French Revolution begins
Bernard de Launay
Governor of the Bastille whose head was cut off, put on a pike and paraded around
Fall of the Bastille
True beginning of the revolution
The Great Fear
Period of confusion and panic at the start of the revolution
The place where records related to an institution or organization are stored
The Declaration of the Rights of Man
Claimed that all people had natural rights - born and remain free and equal in rights; these rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression; freedom of speech and religion, and equal justice; r…
Women March on Versailles
An angry mob of women marched to Versailles to demand bread from the king due to the shortage. They also intended to kill the queen who they despised. The king, queen, and their son went to Paris.
one who opposes rapid change and holds traditional values
What type of reforms are these an example of? spiritualism, communitarianism, sylvester graham and grahams, women's rights
1870'S - King of Belgium. Began imperial domain in Africa and was extremely harsh. At the Berlin Conference of 1885, the Congo Free State was authorized under his private rule and he promised to …
the comradeship of all French citizens working together for the good of France
eventually became the French national anthem
Attack on the Roman Catholic Church
priests forced to take oath of loyalty, took Church's land and sold it, attempted to transform church into French national church
September 22, 1792
The first day of Year I according to the French calendar
Jacobin writer, killed in his tub
a two-wheeled wooden cart used to transport prisoners to the guillotine
middle-class citizens; demanded the execution of the royal family; insisted on going to war with Austria and its allies
supporters of Charles i during English civil War
the final death toll during the Reign of Terror
King Louis XVIII (18th)
brother of Louis XVI, became king of France after Napoleon was exiled; but fled Paris when Napoleon came back into power
new classicism; influenced by Roman cities Herculaneum and Pompeii; followers valued order and systems
jean jacques rousseau
believed in the social contract, A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
English poet during the romantic movement; wrote about things that could stir emotion and feeling; wrote poems about children because they were less corrupted by society
English painter during the romantic movement; called the "Wordsworth of painting" for capturing the beauties of nature
Ludwig van Beethoven
classical composer who pushed the boundaries of classical music; his work grew more and more emotional as time wore on
King of England during the American and French Revolutions