Level 85
Level 86

Before the Napoleonic Era


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Charles V
Holy Roman emperor and king of Spain as Charles I . He summoned the Diet of Worms (and the Council of Trent, He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation.
Francis I
King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against Holy Roman emperor in order to distract his main r…
Dante Alighieri
The Italian author who wrote many poems (The Divine Comedy) and nonfiction works; he often wrote in Italian instead of Latin, which created a trend for other writers to use their native language instead of Latin.
Petrarch
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Donatello
Florentine sculptor famous for his lifelike sculptures (1386-1466). He used lifelike styles in sculpting, made statue of David
Albrecht Durer
Famous Northern Renaissance artist, he often used woodcutting along with Italian Renaissance techniques like proportion, perspective and modeling. (Knight Death, and Devil; Four Apostles)
Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe
Michelangelo
An artist who focused mainly on sculpture, his works are known for conveying intense feelings and portraying a sense of power. His most famous work is not a sculpture but a giant fresco paintin…
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter h…
Vasco Da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route
Christopher Columbus
sent from Spain by Isabelle and Ferdinand to find Asia
Hernan Cortes
Spanish explorer and conquistador who led the conquest of Aztec Mexico in 1519-1521 for Spain. (p. 437)
Francisco Pizarro
New World conqueror; Spanish conqueror who crushed the Inca civilization in Peru; took gold, silver and enslaved the Incas in 1532.
Ferdinand Magellan
sailed from Spain in 1515
Bartolome de las Casas
First bishop of Chiapas, in southern Mexico. He devoted most of his life to protecting Amerindian peoples from exploitation. His major achievement was the New Laws of 1542, which limited the ability of Spanish sett…
John Wycliffe
an Englishman who preached that Jesus Christ, not the pope, was the true head of the Church, he believed that the clergy should not own land or wealth, and taught that the Bible alone—not…
Jan Huss
Czech philosopher and reformer. He was the head of a protestant movement called the hussites. he influenced luther.
Martin Luther
a German monk, Catholic priest, professor of theology and seminal figure of a reform movement in 16th century Christianity, subsequently known as the Protestant Reformation. He strongly disputed the claim that freedom from God's punish…
Ulrich Zwingli
This was a man who believed that Christian life rested on the Scriptures and a prominent leader in the Swiss Reformation. He went on to attack indulgences, the Mass, the institution of monasticism, and clerical celibacy
Ignatius of Loyola
principal founder and first Superior General of the Society of Jesus, a religious order of the Catholic Church professing direct service to the Pope in terms of mission. Members of the order are called Jesuit…
Francis Xavier
This was a man who helped Ignatius of Loyola to start the Jesuits. He also was famous for his number of missionaries he went on to promote Christianity
Henry VIII
King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Ch…
Elizabeth I
Queen of England in 1558-1603 after her father Henry VIII died.
Catherine de Medici
wife of Henry II, influenced her sons after the end of there father's rein. She placed an alliance with the ultra-Catholics (the militant Catholics), which was led by the second most powerful family in Fra…
Henry IV
The irst Bourbon king-most important kings in French history-rise to power ended French Civil Wars-gradual course to absolutism-politique-converted to Catholicism to gain loyalty of Paris, also devised Edict of Nantes.
James I
became King of England when Elizabeth I died
Charles I
Forced unpopular levies and taxes in the English people, and stationed troops en route to war with Spain in private homes. Parliament forced him to agree to the Petition of Right. In 1629 parliament decl…
William And Mary
Joint monarchs that ruled after glorious revolution under constitutional monarchy
James II
Renewed fears of catholic England by openly appointing Catholics to high positions in court and in the army. Fled to France in 1689 in the face of William of Orange's superior army
William of Orange
Dutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
Charles II
Rule known as the Stuart Restoration, returned to England to rule after the death of Cromwell in 1658
John Locke
Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rig…
Miguel de Cervantes
Spanish writer best remembered for 'Don Quixote' which satirizes chivalry and influenced the development of the novel form (1547-1616)
Thomas Hobbes
Hobbes wrote that without government, life would be poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Presented the idea of the social contract. Leviathan
William Shakespeare
(1564-1616) Most famous English writer who wrote a series of popular stage plays (Romeo and Juliet and Macbeth)
Louis XIII
king of France who increased the power of the crown over the feudal lords (1187-1226), Influenced by Richelieu to exult the French monarchy as the embodiment of the French state.
Louis XIV
Sun King successfully surprised discontent among the nobility and landowners through absolute monarchy and strict catholic rule. Believed in religious uniformity and helped to suppress the Jansenists
Louis XV
grandson of Louis XIV and king of France from 1715 to 1774 who led France into the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War (1710-1774)
Ivan IV
First Czar of Russia. During good Era: made many reforms, Created a council that included members from all classes, Defeated Mongols and expanded borders. During bad Era: Paranoid and strict policies lost many of…
Peter I
Also known as the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of Western European models.
Charles XII
Swedish king who organized the Swedish forces during the Great Northern War, after defeating the Russians he went to invade Poland and Russia had a chance to reorganize
Antonio Vivaldi
a Venetian priest and baroque music composer, as well as a famous virtuoso violinist; he was born and raised in the Republic of Venice. The Four Seasons, a series of four violin concertos, is…
Johann Sebastian Bach
renowned organist and composer; spent entire life in Germany; while music director of Church or Saint Thomas in Leipzig composed Mass in B Minor; got reputation of being one of the greatest composers of all time; perfected baroque style
John III Sobieski
Polish king, prevented fall of Vienna
Philip II
one of the most powerful Capetian kings, he increased the territory of France by seizing Normandy, tripled the lands under his direct control, and became the first French king to be more powerful than any of his vassals.
Denis Diderot
French philosopher who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment in France, encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.
immanuel kant
(1724-1804) German philosopher who thought that the mind comes into the world with certain inborn assumptions or predilections with which it molds experience.
John Toland
wrote Christianity Not Mysterious,promoted religion as a natural and rational,rather than a supernatural and mystical, phenomenon;opposed prejudice against Jews and Muslims;contended that Islam derived from early Christian writings and was thus a form of Christianity
David Hume
Scottish philosopher; asked why a perfect God would make an imperfect world; wrote-"Treatise on Human Nature", logic on the human mind; "the only miracleis that people still believe in miracles"; looked down on religious emotion
voltaire
used satire against opponents, (1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
John Wesley
Influenced by Pietism, John Wesley (1703-1791) propagandized Methodism among the English populace,and was involved with the protastant revivial. He was an English clergyman and founder of Methodism (1703-1791)
Maximillen Robespierre
French revolutionary. He sent suspected tratiors to the guillotine during the Reighn of Terror from 1793 until his own death by the guillotine in 1794.
Marie Antoinette
Louis XVI's wife, thought to have said "Let them eat cake"
Louis XVI
king, clueless, bad decisions, tries to escape
Jean-Paul Marat
Jacobin writer, killed in his tub
Edmund Burke
British Whig leader who was cautious about the French Revolution. Saw that they needed to keep thei present political structure and seek to achieve evolutionary rather than revolutionary change.
Danton
part of committee of public safety
Olympe de Gouges
Wrote The Rights of Women in 1791, in which she argued that women should have the right to be educated, to control their own property, and to initiate divorce. Didn't demand full rights for women, however.
Mirabeau
French revolutionary who was prominent in the early days of the French Revolution (1749-1791)
Montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755), wrote spirit of laws
Jacques Necker
A financial expert and Louis XIV's adviser.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
(1712-1778) French writer and Enlightenment philosopher who wrote a book called, The Social Contract, where he stated that people were basically good, and that society, and its unequal distribution of wealth, were the caus…
Talleyrand
Bonaparte's foreign administrator who acts as a traitor by telling Alexander that Napoleon is overreaching himself and advises patience. Believes that balance in Europe will create peace. (pg. 396)
Level 87