Level 87
Level 88

Napoleonic Europe & the Spread of Revolution


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Coup d'etat
1799, A sudden overthrow of the government by Napoleon.
Directory
A group of 5 men who were given control of France following the Reign of Terror, but no competent enough to lead the war.
First Counsel
Napoleon's new position through the coup d'etat which declares him the entire executive authority. had influence over legislature, appointed admin bereaucracy, controlled army, and conducted foreign affairs. (1799-1802)
Rise of Napoleon
Outcome of the French Revolution. Napoleon defeats Austria, Prussia and Russia
Treaty of Tilsi
Agreement between Napoleon and Czar Alexander I in which Russia became an ally of France and Napoleon took over the lands of Prussia west of the Elba as well as the Polish provinces. Peace with Russia.
Napoleon's Empire
At the height of his power, Napoleon controlled most of Europe except England
satellite states
A country that is economically and politically dependent on another country
continental system
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
Napoleon's Reforms
Code Napoleon
Code Napoleon
Napoleon's set of laws that declared that all men are equal before the law
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power.
Invalides
Place where Napoleon is buried.
Haiti Revolution
In 1791, 100 thousand Enslaved Africans revolted with Toussiant L'Ouver as their leader. He soon became a skilled general and diplomat who freed almost all of the enslaved Africans in Haiti.
Toussiant L'Ouver
Influential leader of the Haitian Revolution
Simon Bolivar
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.
Third of may
The Shootings of May 3rd 1808; famous Hispanic painter; depicts blood and warfare; France is occupying Spain now and the Spanish hated the French (torture and execution); This depicts an execution scene
Francisco de Goya
Spanish artist who saw the atrocities of war when the French invaded Spain. Famous for painting "Third of May".
Brazil revolution
Bloodless revolution, king signed over power to creoles.
Dom Pedro
King John's son who claims independence for Brazil after being asked to rule from a petition of the people. won independence in a bloodless revolution
Fall of Napoleon
-March 31st is also the date of Napoleon's surrender
guerrilla warfare
An attack run by a small group to ambush the opposing force in a way. Created by the Spanish to attack the French.
Elba
An island of Italy in the Mediterranean Sea where Napoleon was first exiled to.
100 days
March 20, 1814 Napoleon escapes from Elba at reinstates his rule.
Battle of Waterloo
This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler.
Duke of Wellington
Leader of the combined British and Prussian army; would defeat Napoleon at Waterloo
St. Helena
Small Island where Napoleon was last exiled to until his death.
Congress of Vienna
-peace settlement 1814-1815
Assembly of Notables
Called for in 1787 by Louis XVI. Made up of leading aristocrats and churchmen gathered to see if they would be willing to pay a new land tax that would apply to everyone regardles…
Abbe Sieyes
A clergyman who wrote a famous pamphlet about how the Third Estate is the true political representation of France and how it needs to be given more power.
cahiers de doleances
Lists of grievances presented to the King by various electoral assemblies in the Estates General. Still loyal to the monarchy but wanted to lessen absolutism.
Tennis Court Oath
Oath between the members of the Third Estate in which they promised to continue to meet until a new constitution was established.
Commune of Paris
Formally recognized by Louis XVI after the storming of the Bastille. A then-new municipal government.
Marquis de Lafayette
Led the National Guard, which Louis XVI allowed to be formed after the Bastille. A champion of liberty, having been involved with the American Revolution.
Great Fear
During the French Revolution, a period filled with rumors about the nobility ganging up on the peasants. This resulted in massive attacks on noble estates. Led to the aristocrats renouncing their feudal rights.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Similar to the American Declaration of Independence, declared the rights of French citizens. Written by Lafeyette. Very Enlightenment-based.
Olympe de Gouges
Wrote The Rights of Women in 1791, in which she argued that women should have the right to be educated, to control their own property, and to initiate divorce. Didn't demand full rights for women, however.
Civil Constitution of the Church (or Clergy)
Legislation passed in 1790 that made the Church a department of the state. Bishops were to be chosen by assemblies of parish priests, who were also elected by others. Clergy became civil servants pai…
Pope Pius VI
Pope that denounced the Civil Constitution and the Declaration of the Rights of Man.
Count of Artois
Youngest brother of Louis XVI, leader of the emigres, or the nobles who fled France and were working to restore their regime. Encouraged Louis to flee France, which led to his capture and ultimate execution.
Varennes
French town on the border of the Netherlands where Louis and his family were caught.
Jacobins
French political club that was represented in the National Assembly. Most popular club during the revolution. Wanted to execute the king, a powerful centralized government.
Girondins
French political club leading the National Assembly, named for the department in southwestern France where many members came from. Favored starting a revolutionary war to free people living in absolutist states. Wanted to simply e…
sans-culottes
Those who do not wear fancy pants. A rather radical part of the French Revolution.
Duke of Brunswick
A Prussian commander who issued a manifesto which promised to destroy Paris if the royal family was harmed.
William Pit the Younger
English Prime Minister who was quite enthusiastic about the French Revolution, believing that France would emerge from it greater than ever.
Edmund Burke
British Whig leader who was cautious about the French Revolution. Saw that they needed to keep thei present political structure and seek to achieve evolutionary rather than revolutionary change.
The Convention
Legislative body formed to come up with a new constitution that would end the constitutional monarchy.
The Mountain
The radical Jacobins in the Convention who met on a raised platform.
The Plain
Group in the middle of the Convention who were not directly tied to either the Jacobins or the Girondins.
laissez-faire
Idea that the government shouldn't play an active role in regulating the economy.
Vendee
A counter-revolution in western France in 1793 based on anger towards restrictions placed on the Church.
Committee of Public Safety
Created by the Convention during the Reign of Terror. Assumed almost dictatorial power of France. Leaders include Danton, Carnot, and Robsepierre (Jacobins).
Marat
A sans-culottes hero who was stabbed to death by Girondin Charlotte Corday.
Lazare Carnot
Head of the French military who issued the proclamation calling for a "levee en masse" in August 1793, the first time that all citizens were called on to serve their country.
Republic of Virtue
The government that the Jacobins wanted. To achieve it, they felt that they had to destroy all traces of the old monarchy. Included a new calendar, attacked religion.
Cult of the Supreme Being
Established by Robespierre to move people away from the corrupting influence of the Church. Turned Notre Dame into the Temple of Reason.
Hebertists
An extreme radical faction of the Reign of Terror led by Robespierre. Violently anti-Christian and wanted to see the government implement further economic controls.
Thermidorians
Those opposed to Robespierre, arrested and executed him. Led the reconstruction after the revolution, abolished the Paris Commune.
Napoleon Bonaparte
French emperor who first gained power after being caused to break up a royalist rebellion in Paris, protecting the Directory (which he eventually got rid of). Also, a former Jacobin.
First Consul
What Napoleon deemed himself in his constitution, widely received by the public.
plebiscite
A vote by the people.
Concordat with Rome
1801. Declared that Catholicism was the religion of the majority of the French but didn't establish it as the state religion. Kept Church in control of the state. Also made it so that the pa…
Civil Code of 1804
Created by Napoleon, also called the Napoleonic Code. Provided for a single unitary legal system for all of France, upheld natural rights. Reversed advances made by women.
Treaty of Amiens
1802. Between France and Britain. Declared peace between the two countries.
Battle of Trafalgar
October 21, 1805. Battle between French and English navies, English won. Destroyed any hope of the French landing in England.
Third Coalition
Joining of Great Britain, Austria, and Russia in an alliance. Napoleon went after them.
Battle of Ulm
1805. Battle led by Napoleon against the Austrians. Nappy won.
Austerlitz
A great French victory over Russia.
Confederacy of the Rhine
Loose grouping of 16 German states placed under the influence of France that replaced the Holy Roman Empire.
Battle of Jena
Battle between France and Prussia after Prussia joined the Third Coalition. Obliterated the Prussian army, French occupied Berlin.
Alexander I
Russian tsar who decided it was necessary to make peace with France.
Treaty of Tilsit
Treaty between Russia (Alex I) and France (Nap). Ended up saving Prussia (although it was shrunken to 1/2 its previous size, forced to be a French ally).
defeat of Napoleon
Caused by the peninsula war in Spain, growing French nationalism, and the 1812 invasion of Russia.
Baron von Stein
Prussian administrator who worked with Count von Hardenberg to continue monarchical power and aristocratic privilege. Brought reforms, though, and ended the Junker monopoly over the owernship of land and abolished serfdom.
Congress of Viena
1814. A meeting between the four great powers (Brit, Austria, Prussia, Russia) and a few others to determine what to do with post-Napoleonic France. Wanted to prevent nationalism and liberalism. Created new states around Fr…
Hundred Days
first hundred days of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency
Level 89