Level 88
Level 89

Napoleon & French Revolutions


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Unrest in France
bad harvest, high prices, high taxes, questions raised by philosophers
Old Regime (3 estates)
people get a say in government
Clergy
Roman Catholic Church, 1% of population
Nobility
rich people, 2% or population
Third Estate
Bourgeoisies, middle class, peasants
Enlightenment effect
reasons leading to the revolution
Economy in France
bad, high taxes on lower class
Louis XVI
king, clueless, bad decisions, tries to escape
said by Abbe Sieyes
What is the Third Estate?
Abbe Sieyes
A clergyman who wrote a famous pamphlet about how the Third Estate is the true political representation of France and how it needs to be given more power.
Tennis Court Oath
Oath between the members of the Third Estate in which they promised to continue to meet until a new constitution was established.
Bastille
symbolic start to revolution on July 14th 1789, stormed Bastille for weapons
Great Fear
During the French Revolution, a period filled with rumors about the nobility ganging up on the peasants. This resulted in massive attacks on noble estates. Led to the aristocrats renouncing their feudal rights.
liberty, equality, fraternity
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
didn't go over well, women rights document
Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Citizen
Control of the Church
losing control, part of assembly
Legislative Assembly
constitutional monarchy, create laws, war decisions
Split / Radical / Conservative / Moderate
radicals wanted big change, conservatives wanted little, moderates were in the middle
sans-culottes
Those who do not wear fancy pants. A rather radical part of the French Revolution.
National Convention
becomes the republic government
monarchy abolished
France = Republic
Jacobins
French political club that was represented in the National Assembly. Most popular club during the revolution. Wanted to execute the king, a powerful centralized government.
Jean-Paul Marat
Jacobin writer, killed in his tub
Georges Danton
lawyer, fought for poor, Jacobin, killed
Maximilien Robespierre
led raid of terror and committee of public safety
Committee of Public Safety
Created by the Convention during the Reign of Terror. Assumed almost dictatorial power of France. Leaders include Danton, Carnot, and Robsepierre (Jacobins).
Nobody Safe
no one was safe because of the guillotine
Napoleon's role in the revolution
he helped it and then fled from forces
Directory
A group of 5 men who were given control of France following the Reign of Terror, but no competent enough to lead the war.
Napoleon Comes to Power
Corsica, military school, conquers land, invited to overthrow Louis
Counsels
Napoleon was dictator, 3 counsels
Coup d'etat
1799, A sudden overthrow of the government by Napoleon.
Louisiana Purchase
Napoleon sold Louisiana territory for $15 million, hurt British
continental system
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
Peninsular War
Napoleon invaded Spain, desposed the king and tried to put his brother Joseph on the throne; the Spanish resisted and defeated Napoleon's army
Invasion of Russia
Czar Alexander I refused to stop selling grain to Britain; as a result, Napoleon attacked his country with the Grand Army
Elba
An island of Italy in the Mediterranean Sea where Napoleon was first exiled to.
Hundred Days
first hundred days of Franklin D. Roosevelt's presidency
Waterloo
-Ney, Wellington (Englishmen)
St. Helena
Small Island where Napoleon was last exiled to until his death.
Congress of Vienna
-peace settlement 1814-1815
Metternich
Most influential person in the Congress of Vienna who restored the monarchs to their thrones; believed in conservatism
Holy Alliance
based on Christian principles, against revolution
Concert of Europe
Alliances helped each other if revolutions broke out
Other Revolutions
Latin Revolutions (Simon Bolivar), unification of Germany and Italy
National Assembly
renamed from 3rd estate
Napoleonic Code
One law code that everyone must obey with 7 parts
Level 90