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Level 9

French, Latin American, & Industrial Revolution


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Sun Yat-sen'd Three Principles of the People
a political philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. The three principles are often translated into and summarized as nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people.
Girondins
French political club leading the National Assembly, named for the department in southwestern France where many members came from. Favored starting a revolutionary war to free people living in absolutist states. Wanted to simply e…
Jacobins
French political club that was represented in the National Assembly. Most popular club during the revolution. Wanted to execute the king, a powerful centralized government.
Guillotine
A machine used to behead people; it was suppose to make death quick and painless
1st estate
1% consisted of the Roman Catholic Church, Higher and lower Clergy! Did not pay taxes.
2nd estate
Nobility (wealthy) less than 2% of population, but owns 25% of land. Paid no taxes, held highest offices in gov't
3rd estate
Common people, paid heavy taxes, rented land they worked on, paid tithe; national assembly
July 14th, 1789
This is the date that represents the symbolic start of the French Revolution; Parisians stormed the Bastille
results of French Revolution
end of monarchy, end of social priveleges, end of feudalism, establishment of individual, rights+liberties; rise of Napolean
Louis XVI
king, clueless, bad decisions, tries to escape
Robespierre
A French political leader of the 18th century. A Jacobin, a radical leader of the French Revolution. Headed the Committee of Public Safety, responsible for the Reign of Terror, was later executed.
4 causes of French Revolution
1.) unequal taxes 2.) spending of the monarchy 3.) funding of wars 4.) famine and mother nature (less food causing prices to rise)
Caudillos
rich men in the upper class;, Base of power, strongmen military dictators
Mullatos
mixed-european & african; 4th on the pyramid
Peninsulares
Europeans born in Europe; 1st in pyramid
Mestizos
(in Latin America) A man of mixed race
Creoles
Europeans born in the new world; 2nd on the pyramid
Haiti
1st Latin American country to revolt against its mother country
Simon Bolivar
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.
Miguel Hidalgo
highly educated Creole priest; led a rag-tag army toward Mexico City, but he never made it. captured and shot
San Martin
Creole officer; freed Argentina from Spanish control; focused on freeing territories in South America; thought only monarchy was affective; died in obscurity
L'Ouverture
led a revolution that drove the French from their Caribbean colony of Haiti-French would have trouble defending in event of war; captured and killed
Morelos
Mestizo priest that took over for Hidalgo; fostered Enlightenment ideas by creating a congress which
textile
A fabric made by weaving, used in making clothing
assembly line
In a factory, an arrangement where a product is moved from worker to worker, with each person performing a single task in the making of the product.
interchangeable parts
Identical components that can be used in place of one another in manufacturing
mass production
Process of making large quantities of a product quickly and cheaply
steam engine
A machine that turns the energy released by burning fuel into motion. Thomas Newcomen built the first crude but workable steam engine in 1712. James Watt vastly improved his device in the 1760s and 17…
factory system
the change in production from handmade goods to goods made by machines
urbanization
movement of people from rural areas to cities
cottage industry
an industry in which the production of goods and services is based in homes, as opposed to factories
Division of Labor
when a worker would specialize in one task to build an object
spinning jenny
James Hargreaves; could spin cotton into thread very quickly
flying shuttle
developed by John Kay, its invention was one of the key developments in weaving that helped fuel the Industrial Revolution, enabled the weaver of a loom to throw the shuttle back and forth between the threads with one hand
cotton gin
In 1793, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin that removed the seeds from cotton mechanically
causes of Industrial Revolution
1.) enclosure on landowners land 2.) good resources in Britain 3.) large population causing lots of workers for factories 4.) successful farming causing capital
change in textile
inventions caused this to be able to be made quicker and easier
good resources
cause of industry in Britain
coal as a fuel source
impact was easier and quicker industry; new fuel source; used in steam engines; factories could be built anywhere
water to coal
changes in sources of energy
James Hargreaves
invented a spinning jenny that could spin cotton into thread very quickly
Richard Arkwright
developed a way to power a spinning machine with water
Edmund Cartwright
created a new powered loom. This machine could weave the thread into cloth as fast as the new spinning machines produced it
James Watt
designed a steam engine that could power the new machines. Steam soon replaced water as the major source of power.
Robert Fulton
an American inventor, developed a boat pow- ered by a steam engine
Thomas Edison
developed the lightbulb
Michael Faraday
discovered that a magnet moving through a coil of copper wire produced an electric current
Samuel Morse
Invented the telegraph
Alexander Graham Bell
Invented the telephone
Guglielmo Marconi
An Italian pioneer who invented the radio.
John Kay
invented the flying shuttle
result of mass production and interchangeable parts
more industry and things made; easier to change parts
Capitalism
An economic system that allows for individual choice, where the government does not interfere with business.
Socialism
Economic and political system where the government owns the means of production, distributes the products, determines and distributes the wages, and provides social services.
process of cottage industry
merchants went from cottage to cottage, bringing the workers raw wool and cotton. Using hand-powered spinning wheels and looms, the workers would spin the thread and weave it into wool and cotton cloth. The merch…
enclosure movement
During the Industrial Revolution, it was the consolidation of many small farms into one large farm, which created a labor force as many people lost their homes.
trade unions
Early labor organizations that brought together workers in the same trade, or job, to fight for better wages and working conditions
strikes
times when workers refuse to work until owners improve conditions
corporations
businesses that are owned by many investors who buy shares of stock
Level 10