Level 89
Level 90

Handout On the French Revolution


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Taille
A tax levied on the value of a peasant's land or wealth.
Capitation
A head or poll tax paid for each person.
Vingtième
A tax on income and was paid chiefly by peasants.
Generalities
The kingdom was parceled into administrative units, with an intendant at the head of each, into whose hands the whole power of the crown was delegated for everything except the military authority; but particularly for all affairs of finance.
Sub-delegue
The generalities were subdivided into elections, at the head of which was a sub-delegue appointed by the intendant.
Intendant
The rolls of the taille, capitation, vingtièmes and other taxes, were distributed among districts, parishes, and individuals, at the pleasure of the intendant, who could exempt, change, add, or diminish at pleasure. It mus…
Arthur Young
An English agricultural expert with a keen eye for detail, traveled through France just prior to the Revolution. In "Travels During the Years 1787, 1788, and 1789", he reported on conditions in the countryside.
Noblemen
In favour at court, to whose protection the intendant himself would naturally look up, could find little difficulty in throwing much of the weight of their taxes on others, without a similar support.
Poor People
Paid heavy taxes, from which the nobility and clergy were exempted.
Corvées
Taxes paid in labor. These taxes were annually the ruin of many hundreds of farmers.
Nobility and Clergy
Equally exempted from tailles, militia and corvées.
Smugglers of Salt
A fine of 300 or 500 livres and three or nine years galleys in Provence, in all the rest of the kingdom, death.
Capitaineries
Lords' exclusive hunting rights. The paramountship of certain districts, granted by the king to princes of the blood, by which they were put in possession of the property of all game, even on lands not belonging to them.
Cahiers
list of grievances
Cabarets
Taverns. The judges hold their courts in cabarets.
Cahiers de doléances
Meaning "lists of grievances." Petitions for reforms submitted to the French Crown when the Estates General met in 1789.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man
Claimed that all people had natural rights - born and remain free and equal in rights; these rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression; freedom of speech and religion, and equal justice; r…
Olympe de Gouges
Wrote The Rights of Women in 1791, in which she argued that women should have the right to be educated, to control their own property, and to initiate divorce. Didn't demand full rights for women, however.
Republic of Virtue
The government that the Jacobins wanted. To achieve it, they felt that they had to destroy all traces of the old monarchy. Included a new calendar, attacked religion.
Patrie
Nation.
sans-culottes
Those who do not wear fancy pants. A rather radical part of the French Revolution.
The Committee of Public Safety
carried out trials and public executions during the Reign of Terror lead by Maximillian Robespierre
Arrondissements
Districts.
Élan
Enthusiastic vigor or liveliness.
Abbé Carrichon
Had promised to accompany several noble ladies to the guillotine, describes the journey of the death cart, carrying aristocratic victims, to the scaffold.
Jakob Walter
In 1812 he was one of 600,000 soldiers in Napoleon's Grand Army. Only half of the soldiers in the army were French, but all were part of Napoleon's plan to invade and conquer Russia…
Level 91