Level 98
Level 99

Revolution, Napoleon & Unification


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Magna Carta
Great Charter forced upon King John of England by his barons in 1215; established that the power of the monarchy was not absolute and guaranteed trial by jury and due process of law to the nobility
Common Law
A system of law based on precedent and customs.
Oliver Cromwell
leader of the Roundheads in the English Civil War that overthrew Charles I
Charles I
Forced unpopular levies and taxes in the English people, and stationed troops en route to war with Spain in private homes. Parliament forced him to agree to the Petition of Right. In 1629 parliament decl…
Charles II
Rule known as the Stuart Restoration, returned to England to rule after the death of Cromwell in 1658
Whigs
a political party that opposed James II
Tories
a political party that supported James II
Whigs and Tories
1st political parties in England
James II
Renewed fears of catholic England by openly appointing Catholics to high positions in court and in the army. Fled to France in 1689 in the face of William of Orange's superior army
James I
became King of England when Elizabeth I died
English Petition of Right
Charles I was forced to sign this
Glorious Revolution
The bloodless accession of William and Mary to the throne of England after James II fled to England
English Bill of Rights 1689
guaranteed basic rights of Englishmen and limited the power of the monarchy
Constitutional Monarchy
government established under William and Mary after they signed the English Bill of Rights (their power was limited)
American Revolution
influenced by Enlightenment ideas
French Revolution
influenced by Enlightenment ideas and the American Revolution
Louis XVI
king, clueless, bad decisions, tries to escape
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen
A document created by the National Assembly during the French Revolution that guaranteed certain human rights. The document was influenced by the Declaration of Independence
Sun Yat-sen'd Three Principles of the People
a political philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. The three principles are often translated into and summarized as nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people.
Storming of the Bastille
seen as the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789
Secularism
The belief in material things instead of religion
Napoleon Bonaparte
French emperor who first gained power after being caused to break up a royalist rebellion in Paris, protecting the Directory (which he eventually got rid of). Also, a former Jacobin.
Napoleonic Code
One law code that everyone must obey with 7 parts
Congress of Vienna
-peace settlement 1814-1815
Liberalism
the belief that people should be as free as possible from government restraint
Conservatism
a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring obedience to the government
Count Cavour
Unified Northern Italy
Guissepe Garibaldi
leader of the Red Shirts that unified Southern Italy
Otto Von Bismarck
Former Prime minister of Prussia; builds military and decides Prussia will unite through Germany using "blood and iron"; defeats Austria and leads to Northern German states; unification of northern Germany
Realpolitik
politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations
Franco Prussian War
War between France and Prussia which ended in a Prussian Victory
Seven Weeks' War
War between Austria and Prussia that ended in a Prussian victory
Wilhelm I
King of Prussia who appointed Bismarck to lead German unification
Revolutions of 1848
Revolutions that swept across Europe after the Congress of Vienna
Royalists
supporters of Charles i during English civil War
Puritans
significant grouping of English Protestants who believed that the Church of England was corrupt and that true Christians must separate themselves from it
Level 100