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Level 12

Critical Geopolitics


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Ratzel
Considered the founding father of Geopolitics through his book "The Laws of the Spatial Growth of States".
Kjellen
Coined the term Geopolitics in his book "The State as an Organism".
Haushofer
He was Hitler's chief advisor on Geopolitics, played a key role in the Nazi war machine. His ideas and teachings in his publication "Journal of Geopolitics" became Germany's national policy.
Mahan
Was influenced by the prominence of British naval power. Argued in his book "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History" that the key to power was not spatial, it was sea power.
Mackinder
Studied history and came to believe that the heartland of eurasia was hugely important. Wrote " The Geographical Pivot of History" and created the adage:
Spykman
Was a critic of Mackinder and worked to refine his ideas in his book "America's Strategy in World Politics". Thought the heartland theory was misguided and that Mackinder underestimated the power of the Rimlands. His adage was:
Seversky
Was the first person to successfully argue for air power in his book "Victory Through Air Power". Used polar maps to argue for the positioning of air bases.
Cohen
Impacted the discipline of Geopolitics rather than the real world through his book "Geography and Politics in a World Divided".
Sprouts
Harold and Margaret had three ideas:
Merscheimer
Wrote about the US. Argues that the US is a regional hegemony and does not allow anyone to dominate Europe or Asia.
Sachs
Wrote about the tyranny of geography. Argues that having access to the sea and market is highly important. Even if you have specialized capitalism, if your geography makes it impossible to reach markets, capitalism doesn't matter.
Map flaws
1. Taking a 3D object onto a 2D space:
Map Attributes
1. Map Scale
Maps
Geographers use maps to examine specific information about detailed areas
Budgetary Deficit
The result of government spending in a fiscal year exceeding revenue.
Bureaucracy
A hierarchically structured organization charged with carrying out policies determined by political authority.
Cabinet
In parliamentary system, the ministers who direct the administration of the government.
Capacity
The degree to which a state or government is able to implement its policies.
Capitalism
An economic system that emphasizes private property rights and market mechanism.
Catch-All Party
A political party whose aim is to gather support from a broad range of citizens by de-emphasis on ideology and emphasis on practical decisions.
Causation
A correlation in which a change in one variable results in the change of others.
Checks and Balances
A system of governance in which divisions of government can restrain the political authority of other divisions.
Citizen
A member of a state who is legally entitled to full civil rights and is legally obliged to perform defined public duties.
population density
la densité démographique
population growth
la croissance démographique
the birth/death rate
le taux de natalité/de mortalité
overpopulation
la surpopulation
a census
un recensement
an age pyramid
une pyramide des âges
an age group
une classe d'âge
a baby boom
une explosion démographique
a baby bust
un effondrement démographique
poeple
peupler
settle
coloniser
inhabit
habiter
uninhabited
inhabité
overcrowded
surpeuplé
scarcely populatued
faiblement peuplé
Historic/Nuclear Core
These are the areas in which states originate and out o which the state idea has developed. The relationship between the physical environment of the core and the political-cultural system that evolves may become embe…
Capitals or Political Centers
Capitals serve as political and symbolic focus of activities that govern the behavior of people in politically defined territories. Built landscape of a national capital has symbolic value in mobilizing support for the state. Capi…
Biogas (essay)
Landfills has problems with this. Potentially explosive problem. In landfills is 2/3 methane, rest is carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Many have died from explosions
biomass
The total amount of living tissue, usually measured in grams, within a given trophic level
border
the line that separates one country, province, etc., from another
Boundaries
Mark off political areas. Linear, but often occur within broader border zones. Their demarcation may become a source of conflict.
Nonconforming Sectors
minority separatist areas within states and isolated or rogue states within regions. usually concentrated in periphery of country and removed from economic advantages provided by ecumene and ENT. resources tend to flow to national center.
Acidity
Fish and other aquatic life are very sensitive to the _______ of water.
Government Bonds
A bond (like a loan of an IOU) issued by a national government usually with a promise to pay periodic interest payments to repay the face value on the maturity date.
No Fly Zone
An area where aircraft may not fly without the risk of interception, especially during a conflict.
Molotov Cocktail
AKA Petrol Bomb, Fire bomb is a generic name for a variety of bottle based improvised incendiary weapons. Usually used in riots, and urban Guerrilla warfare. They set things on fire!
23.5 degrees
degree that Earth's axis of rotation is tilted at
Ballistic Missile
A missile or rocket that follows a ballistic (parabola) flightpath and delivers a warhead to a predetermined target.
Warhead
An explosive and/or toxic material that is delivered by a rocket, missile or torpedo.
Special Forces
Military units trained to perform unconventional missions.
WMD (Weapon of Mass Destruction
A nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological, or other weapon that can kill or bring significant harm to a large number of hum,ans or man made structures, natural structures, or the biosphere.
A key, symbols, colour, shape, scale.
What do mapmakers use to represent the features found on the earth's surface?
Special Operations
Military operations that are considered unconventional (special). They are usually carried out by dedicated special forces.
USNorthCom, USSouthCom, USEuCom, USAfriCom, USCentCom, USPacCom,
All parts of the Unified Combatant Command (UCC) of the USA DoD.
Banana Republic
A country whose economy is largely dependent on exporting a limited resource product like bananas.
Oligarchy
A small group of people having control of a country or organization.
Technocrat
Individuals exercising governmental authority because of their knowledge.
Political bureau of the CPC Central Committee
A group of 25 people who oversee the Communist Party of China.
Social Constructionsim
A theory that examines the development of jointly constructed understanding of the world.
Level 13