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Level 22

Geography of Cities


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3: New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia
By 1900, the US had how many cities with more than one million inhabitants?
Global migration
What was the pattern that contributed to the rise of the city?
The rich and the poor.
Urbanization contributed to the widening gap between which two social classes?
Age of Exploration
Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.
carbon sink
area where carbon dives into.
What problems were reformers addressing at the end of the 19th century?
Urban industrialism and the substandard living and working conditions that it produced.
Their own ethnic kin. They formed their own ethnic enclaves.
Immigrants to the nations cities turned to what to survive after facing hostilities directed toward them?
How The Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis
What best selling book exposed the impoverished conditions of the New York city slums and the widening gap between the rich and poor?
Plutocracy.
What term described a society ruled by the rich?
The Spirit of Electricity.
What was Alice Vanderbilt dressed as at their Venetian Costume Party?
the rise of cities
the main feature of civilization is
civilization
a complex highly organized social order
City
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
surplus
over production of goods
surplus=
population growth
tigris,euphrates,nile,indus,yellow rivers
5 main river valleys
silt
flood water spread
irrigation systems
controlled flooding
annular
can develop from a dome of from within a basin where dissection has exposed concentric alternating bands of tilted hard and soft rock.
well organized govt
what was needed to create the irrigation systems
Cirque Lakes
Valley glaciers carve out semicircular basins that can fill with water.
old stone age/paleolithic age
the earliest period in human history, 2 mill BC to 10,000BC
tools were made from
stone bone skin and wood
nomads
hunter gatherers who constantly moved, groups of 20-30 people
Backward linkages
The inputs required for production, such as machinery, machine tools, metal working, and iron casting
animism
belief that animals were spiritual beings
Agricultural/neolithic revolution
farming,brought up 11,000 yrs ago, developed new skills, forming of calendars, domestication of animals=population growth , human interaction
mesopotamia
first civilization occurred in
Physical Maps
Only show natural things
Boundaries
Mark off political areas. Linear, but often occur within broader border zones. Their demarcation may become a source of conflict.
thematic map
focuses on a theme
regional map
zoomed in version of political
Ghettos
Areas of town that were dirty, crowded, poor, violent, and full of disease.
Tenements
Apartment buildings that were run down and tightly packed.
Approach shore
slow down, gets narrower, gets taller. creates friction with seafloor
Jane Adams
Founded the first settlement house: The Hull House located in Chicago.
Hull House
Provided education, social area, libraries, child care, and art classes, for immigrants.
Settlement Houses
Organizations similar to the Hull House that were created to aid immigrants.
Industrialization
Period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing.
urbanization
the growth of cities and the migration of people into them
New England
Manufactured textiles.
altitude
height of a point in relation to sea level
Pittsburgh
Manufactured steel.
Chicago
Packed processed meat.
West
Cattle Raising, Wheat farming, and other farming.
Pull
More Land
Push
Overpopulation
mass transit
public transportation designed to move many people
suburbs
residential neighborhoods outside of downtown areas
mass culture
leisure and cultural activities shared by many people
Joseph Pulitzer
in 1896 added a color comic to his New York World newspaper
William Randolph Hearst
saw that comics helped sell newspapers so added comics to the "Journal"
Air Mass
A very large body of atmosphere defined by basically similar horizontal air temperatures. Moisture conditions are also usually similar throughout the mass. An air mass takes on the characteristics of a place it originates.
community structure
is shaped by the random processes of colonization and local environmental conditions
Chemical bonds
formed by exchanging or sharing of electrons between atoms
biotic factor
living organisms
Level 23